Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome that is characterized by extreme pain in a limb out of proportion to the history and physical findings, accompanied by one or more signs of autonomic dysfunction . Although CRPS was first reported in 1864 , it was not until 1971 that CRPS was described in a child . Since the initial pediatric report, CRPS is increasingly recognized in pediatric pain, rheumatology, and neurology clinics [4-6].
The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of CRPS in children will be reviewed here. CRPS in adults is discussed separately. (See "Etiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome in adults" and "Prevention and management of complex regional pain syndrome in adults".)
Alternative names for CRPS in the literature include reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), algodystrophy, causalgia, Sudeck atrophy, transient osteoporosis, and acute atrophy of bone. In 1995, a consensus conference grouped these disorders under a single heading of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) .
CRPS is divided into two categories:
- Type I occurs in patients with CRPS without a definable nerve lesion.
- Type II, also referred to as causalgia, occurs in cases where a definable nerve lesion is present.