Cold stimulus headache, also known as ice-cream headache or brain-freeze headache, is triggered by exposure of the unprotected head to a cold environment, or by ingesting cold materials that pass over the palate and posterior pharynx.
This topic will review cold stimulus headache. Other types of headache are reviewed elsewhere. (See "Evaluation of headache in adults" and "Approach to the child with headache".)
Cranial neuralgias and central causes of facial pain are discussed separately. (See "Overview of craniofacial pain" and "Central neuropathic facial pain" and "Nervus intermedius neuralgia" and "Nummular headache" and "Occipital neuralgia" and "Trigeminal neuralgia".)
The pathophysiology of cold stimulus headache is not completely understood. Cold temperature seems to be a trigeminal trigger  that is followed by possible reflex vasoconstriction .
In a Danish cross-sectional general population survey of people 25 to 64 years old, the lifetime prevalence of cold stimulus headache was 15 percent , while a survey of 13 to 15 year old adolescents from Taiwan found a prevalence of 41 percent . Some studies [2,4-6], but not all , suggest that cold stimulus headache is more common in migraineurs than in the general population.