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Medline ® Abstracts for References 4,69-73

of 'Clostridium difficile infection in adults: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis'

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Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA).
AU
Cohen SH, Gerding DN, Johnson S, Kelly CP, Loo VG, McDonald LC, Pepin J, Wilcox MH, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, Infectious Diseases Society of America
SO
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31(5):431.
 
Since publication of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America position paper on Clostridium difficile infection in 1995, significant changes have occurred in the epidemiology and treatment of this infection. C. difficile remains the most important cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea and is increasingly important as a community pathogen. A more virulent strain of C. difficile has been identified and has been responsible for more-severe cases of disease worldwide. Data reporting the decreased effectiveness of metronidazole in the treatment of severe disease have been published. Despite the increasing quantity of data available, areas of controversy still exist. This guideline updates recommendations regarding epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and infection control and environmental management.
AD
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious and Immunologic Diseases, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA.
PMID
69
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Comparison of BD GeneOhm Cdiff real-time PCR assay with a two-step algorithm and a toxin A/B enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of toxigenic Clostridium difficile infection.
AU
Kvach EJ, Ferguson D, Riska PF, Landry ML
SO
J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48(1):109. Epub 2009 Oct 28.
 
The BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of the Clostridium difficile toxin B (tcdB) gene, was compared with the toxin A/B (Tox A/B) II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a two-step algorithm which includes a C. Diff Chek-60 glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen assay followed by cytotoxin neutralization. Four hundred liquid or semisolid stool samples submitted for diagnostic C. difficile testing, 200 GDH antigen positive and 200 GDH antigen negative, were selected for analysis. All samples were tested by the C. Diff Chek-60 GDH antigen and cytotoxin neutralization assays, the Tox A/B II ELISA, and the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay. Specimens with discrepant results were tested by toxigenic culture as an independent "gold standard." Of 200 GDH-positive samples, 71 were positive by the Tox A/B II ELISA, 88 were positive by the two-step method, 93 were positive by PCR, and 96 were positive by the GDH antigen assay only. Of 200 GDH-negative samples, 3 were positive by PCR only. Toxigenic culture was performed for 41 samples with discrepant results, and 39 were culture positive. Culture resolution of discrepant results showed the Tox A/B II assay to have detected 70 (66.7%), the two-step method to have detected 87 (82.9%), and PCR to have detected 96 (91.4%) of 105 true positives. The BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay was more sensitive in detecting toxigenic C. difficile than the Tox A/B II assay (P<0.0001); however, the difference between PCR and the two-step method was not significant (P = 0.1237). Enhanced sensitivity and rapid turnaround time make the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay an important advance in the diagnosis of toxigenic C. difficile infection.
AD
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8035, USA.
PMID
70
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Evaluation of a new commercial TaqMan PCR assay for direct detection of the clostridium difficile toxin B gene in clinical stool specimens.
AU
Stamper PD, Babiker W, Alcabasa R, Aird D, Wehrlin J, Ikpeama I, Gluck L, Carroll KC
SO
J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47(12):3846. Epub 2009 Oct 21.
 
The ProGastro Cd assay (Prodesse, Inc., Waukesha, WI) is a new commercial TaqMan PCR assay that detects tcdB. The ProGastro Cd assay was compared to the Wampole Clostridium difficile toxin B test (TOX-B test; TechLab, Blacksburg, VA), a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCCNA), and to anaerobic toxigenic bacterial culture, as the "gold standard," for 285 clinical stool specimens. Assays were independently performed according to manufacturers' directions. A 1.0-ml sample was removed from the stool specimen, of which 20 microl was used for extraction on the NucliSENS easyMAG platform (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, NC) for the Prodesse ProGastro Cd assay and 200 microl of the stool filtrate was used for the TOX-B CCCNA. Anaerobic toxigenic culture was done by heating an additional 1.0 ml of the stool sample to 80 degrees C for 10 min before inoculation onto modified cycloserine, cefoxitin, and fructose agar with horse blood (Remel, Lenexa, KS) and into a prereduced chopped meat glucose broth (BBL, BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD). The prevalence of toxin-producing strains of C. difficile was 15.7% (n = 44) as determined by anaerobic toxigenic culture. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Prodesse ProGastro Cdassay compared to the TOX-B test were 83.3%, 95.6%, 69.4%, and 98%, respectively. Compared to toxigenic culture, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Prodesse ProGastro Cd assay were 77.3%, 99.2%, 94.4%, and 95.9%, respectively, and those of the TOX-B test were 63.6%, 99.2%, 93.3%, and 93.6%, respectively. Although no statistical difference (Fisher's exact test) was detected (P = 0.242) between the sensitivities of the Prodesse ProGastro Cd assay and a standard CCCNA compared to anaerobic culture for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile, the Prodesse ProGastro Cd assay did detect more toxigenic C. difficile isolates than the CCCNA.
AD
Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
PMID
71
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Comparison of nine commercially available Clostridium difficile toxin detection assays, a real-time PCR assay for C. difficile tcdB, and a glutamate dehydrogenase detection assay to cytotoxin testing and cytotoxigenic culture methods.
AU
Eastwood K, Else P, Charlett A, Wilcox M
SO
J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47(10):3211. Epub 2009 Aug 26.
 
The continuing rise in the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection is a cause for concern, with implications for patients and health care systems. Laboratory diagnosis largely relies on rapid toxin detection kits, although assays detecting alternative targets, including glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin genes, are now available. Six hundred routine diagnostic diarrheal samples were tested prospectively using nine commercial toxin detection assays, cytotoxin assay (CYT), and cytotoxigenic culture (CYTGC) and retrospectively using a GDH detection assay and PCR for the toxin B gene. The mean sensitivity and specificity for toxin detection assays were 82.8% (range, 66.7 to 91.7%) and 95.4% (range, 90.9 to 98.8%), respectively, in comparison with CYT and 75.0% (range, 60.0 to 86.4%) and 96.1% (91.4 to 99.4%), respectively, in comparison with CYTGC. The sensitivity and specificity of the GDH assay were 90.1% and 92.9%, respectively, compared to CYT and 87.6% and 94.3%, respectively, compared to CYTGC. The PCR assay had the highest sensitivity of all the tests in comparison with CYT (92.2%) and CYTGC (88.5%), and the specificities of the PCR assay were 94.0% and 95.4% compared to CYT and CYTGC, respectively. All kits had low positive predictive values (range, 48.6 to 86.8%) compared with CYT, assuming a positive sample prevalence of 10% (representing the hospital setting), which compromises the clinical utility of single tests for the laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection. The optimum rapid single test was PCR for toxin B gene, as this had the highest negative predictive value. Diagnostic algorithms that optimize test combinations for the laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection need to be defined.
AD
Microbiology Department, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, United Kingdom.
PMID
72
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Comparison of a commercial real-time PCR assay for tcdB detection to a cell culture cytotoxicity assay and toxigenic culture for direct detection of toxin-producing Clostridium difficile in clinical samples.
AU
Stamper PD, Alcabasa R, Aird D, Babiker W, Wehrlin J, Ikpeama I, Carroll KC
SO
J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47(2):373. Epub 2008 Dec 10.
 
Rapid detection of toxin-producing strains of Clostridium difficile is essential for optimal management of patients with C. difficile infection. The BD GeneOhm (San Diego, CA) Cdiff assay, a real-time PCR assay that amplifies tcdB, was compared to a cell culture neutralization assay (Wampole C. difficile Toxin B [TOX-B]test; TechLab, Blacksburg, VA) and to toxigenic culture. Using liquid (n = 273) and soft (n = 131) stool specimens from 377 symptomatic patients, all testing was performed on the same day by independent laboratory staff according to the manufacturers' protocols. Toxigenic bacterial culture was performed as follows. A 0.5-ml aliquot of stool was heated to 80 degrees C for 10 min, followed by inoculation onto modified cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar with and without horse blood (Remel, Lenexa, KS) and into prereduced chopped-meat broth. Of the 404 stool specimens tested, 340 were negative and 40 were positive (10.0% prevalence) both by PCR for tcdB and by cytotoxin production. The overall agreement between the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay and the TOX-B test was 94.8% (380/401). When the TOX-B test was used as the reference method, the initial sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay were 90.9% (40/44), 95.2% (340/357), 70.2% (40/57), and 98.8% (340/344), respectively. When toxigenic culture was used as the "gold standard," the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay were 83.6%, 98.2%, 89.5%, and 97.1%, respectively, and those of the TOX-B test were 67.2%, 99.1%, 93.2%, and 94.4%, respectively. PCRs for three samples were inhibited upon initial testing; one sample was resolved upon retesting. One sample produced nonspecific cytotoxin results. The BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay performed well compared to a standard cell culture neutralization assay and to toxigenic culture for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile directly from fecal specimens.
AD
Department of Pathology, Division of Medical Microbiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
PMID
73
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Evaluation of real-time PCR and conventional diagnostic methods for the detection of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in a prospective multicentre study.
AU
van den Berg RJ, Vaessen N, Endtz HP, Schülin T, van der Vorm ER, Kuijper EJ
SO
J Med Microbiol. 2007;56(Pt 1):36.
 
In this prospective multicentre study, an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (VIDAS CDA2; bioMérieux), an enzyme-linked assay [Premier Toxins A and B (PTAB); Meridian]and an in-house real-time PCR amplifying the tcdB gene were compared with the cell cytotoxicity assay used as the 'gold standard' for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). Faecal samples from patients with a request for C. difficile diagnosis and samples from patients with diarrhoea hospitalized for at least 72 h were collected for 3 consecutive months from four university medical centres in The Netherlands. In total, 547 faecal samples were obtained from 450 patients. Of 540 samples available for all of the assays, 84 (15.6 %) showed a positive result in one or more assays. The cell cytotoxicity assay was positive in 31 samples (5.7 %) from 28 patients. A diagnosis of CDAD was not considered by the physician in 5 (23.8 %) of 21 patients with CDAD who were hospitalized for at least 72 h. Compared with the cell cytotoxicity assay, the sensitivity of VIDAS, PTAB and PCR was 83.9, 96.8 and 87.1 %, respectively. The specificity of VIDAS, PTAB and PCR was 97.1, 94.3 and 96.5 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for VIDAS, PTAB and PCR were63.4 and 99.0 %, 50.9 and 99.8 %, and 60.0 and 99.2 %, respectively. Of 61 samples that were positive in one, two or three of the assays, 56 were available for discordance analysis. Discordance analysis was performed by culture of toxinogenic strains. The concordance of VIDAS, PTAB and PCR with culture was 53.6 % (30/56), 55.4 % (31/56) and 71.4 % (40/56), respectively. It was concluded that real-time PCR had the highest concordance with toxinogenic culture and is therefore the preferred method for diagnosing CDAD in faecal samples. It was also concluded that diagnosis of patients with diarrhoea who have been hospitalized for more than 72 h should focus mainly on the detection of C. difficile, irrespective of the physician's request.
AD
Department of Medical Microbiology, E4-67, Centre of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.
PMID