UpToDate
Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstracts for References 18-20

of 'Clostridium difficile infection in adults: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis'

18
TI
Relapse of antibiotic associated colitis: endogenous persistence of Clostridium difficile during vancomycin therapy.
AU
Walters BA, Roberts R, Stafford R, Seneviratne E
SO
Gut. 1983;24(3):206.
 
This study reports 24 patients with antibiotic associated colitis due to Clostridium difficile. Fifteen patients were treated with vancomycin due to the severity of the colitis and in eight of these a clinical relapse of the colitis occurred after vancomycin therapy was stopped. Bacteriological investigations of these patients indicated that C difficile was able to persist in stool samples during vancomycin therapy in the absence of detectable cytotoxin. This was in contrast with the seven patients successfully treated with vancomycin without relapse, and those not treated with vancomycin where both stool cultures and cytotoxin assays became negative. These results suggest that patients being treated with vancomycin for antibiotic associated colitis due to C difficile should have stool cultures done during and after treatment. Persistence of the organism in the absence of detectable cytotoxin may identify those patients who relapse and lead to either recommencement of vancomycin or alternative therapeutic approaches.
AD
PMID
19
TI
Antibiotic-associated colitis: why do patients relapse?
AU
Young G, McDonald M
SO
Gastroenterology. 1986;90(4):1098.
 
AD
PMID
20
TI
Recurrence of symptoms in Clostridium difficile infection--relapse or reinfection?
AU
Wilcox MH, Fawley WN, Settle CD, Davidson A
SO
J Hosp Infect. 1998;38(2):93.
 
We have fingerprinted Clostridium difficile isolates from patients with symptomatic recurrences of infection, using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The medical records of 55/79 patients were examined, from whom multiple C. difficile-positive faeces were received during hospitalization at least five days, but no more than two months, apart. In 20 of these cases symptoms either did not recur (i.e., absent for at least three days between episodes), or were explainable by other causes, such as laxative administration. Of the remaining 35 patients, 27 sets of C. difficile isolates (23 pairs and four triplicates) were available for RAPD fingerprinting. Differing C. difficile DNA fingerprints (at least three major bands difference) were obtained for 15/27 patients, and hence at least 56% of the clinical recurrences of infection were in fact due to re-infection as opposed to relapse. Since we found that an endemic C. difficile clone was present in 18 out of 27 patients (67%) and accounted for 53% (31/58) of all isolates, it is probable that the majority of symptomatic recurrences are in fact re-infections, with either a different or the same C. difficile strain. We conclude that more attention must be given to preventing the re-infection of C. difficile symptomatic patients. Isolation of symptomatic individuals is the preferred option for the protection of other patients, but measures must be taken to ensure that further strain acquisition by the index casesdoes not occur.
AD
Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds, UK.
PMID