Medline ® Abstracts for References 6-8
of 'Clostridium difficile in adults: Treatment'
Diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile: response time for treatment with metronidazole and vancomycin.
Wilcox MH, Howe R
J Antimicrob Chemother. 1995;36(4):673.
One hundred patients, known to have been excreting Clostridium difficile cytotoxin in faeces, were reviewed retrospectively to determine the response time for treatment with oral metronidazole and vancomycin, and the effect of the additional administration of anti-motility agents. Records were available for 78 patients of whom 58 had received treatment with either metronidazole or vancomycin. Response and relapse rates were similar for the two treatment regimens. However, the mean duration of symptoms was significantly shorter in evaluable patients treated with vancomycin (3.0 days, n = 22) compared with those given metronidazole (4.6 days, n = 28) (Mann-Whitney-U, P<0.01). No difference in the duration of symptoms, irrespective of antibiotic therapy, was associated with use of anti-motility agents. The increased cost of vancomycin compared with metronidazole for the treatment of C. difficile infection may be justifiable by reductions in the length of stay in hospital or in the need for nursing in isolation facilities, consequent upon a shorter symptomatic response time. Administration of anti-motility agents did not appear to impair response in patients with mild to moderate C. difficile infection.
Clinical Microbiology and Public Health Laboratory, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
Antimotility agents for the treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea and colitis.
Koo HL, Koo DC, Musher DM, DuPont HL
Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(5):598.
Antimotility agent use for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is discouraged. We reviewed the literature and unpublished postmarketing surveillance reports regarding antimotility treatment of CDI. Twenty reports met inclusion criteria, describing 55 patients with CDI who were exposed to antimotility agents. All studies were case reports or series, with the exception of 1 retrospective review. Nineteen patients (35%) improved, with clinical resolution. Nine patients (16%) died, and 27 patients (49%) had unknown outcomes. Seventeen patients (31%) with CDI developed colonic dilation; 5 of these patients with severe CDI died. However, all patients who experienced complications or died were given antimotility agents alone initially, without an appropriate antibiotic. Twenty-three patients who received metronidazole or vancomycin coadministered with the antimotility agent experienced no complications. Evidence supporting the hypothesis that worsened outcomes are associated with antimotility therapy of CDI is lacking. Further study of the role of antimotility agents in providing symptomatic relief and reducing environmental contamination with infectious stool may be warranted.
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. email@example.com
Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections.
Surawicz CM, Brandt LJ, Binion DG, Ananthakrishnan AN, Curry SR, Gilligan PH, McFarland LV, Mellow M, Zuckerbraun BS
Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Apr;108(4):478-98; quiz 499. Epub 2013 Feb 26.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of hospital-associated gastrointestinal illness and places a high burden on our health-care system. Patients with CDI typically have extended lengths-of-stay in hospitals, and CDI is a frequent cause of large hospital outbreaks of disease. This guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with CDI as well as for the prevention and control of outbreaks while supplementing previously published guidelines. New molecular diagnostic stool tests will likely replace current enzyme immunoassay tests. We suggest treatment of patients be stratified depending on whether they have mild-to-moderate, severe, or complicated disease. Therapy with metronidazole remains the choice for mild-to-moderate disease but may not be adequate for patients with severe or complicated disease. We propose a classification of disease severity to guide therapy that is useful for clinicians. We review current treatment options for patients with recurrent CDI and recommendations for the control and prevention of outbreaks of CDI.
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98104, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org