Clinical manifestations of meningococcal infection
- Michael Apicella, MD
Michael Apicella, MD
- Emeritus Professor of Microbiology and Internal Medicine
- The University of Iowa
- Section Editors
- Stephen B Calderwood, MD
Stephen B Calderwood, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Infectious Diseases
- Section Editor — Bacterial Infections
- Professor of Medicine (Microbiology and Immunobiology)
- Harvard Medical School
- Morven S Edwards, MD
Morven S Edwards, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults in the United States, with an overall mortality rate of 13 percent, and it is the second most common cause of community-acquired adult bacterial meningitis . The clinical manifestations of meningococcal disease can be quite varied, ranging from transient fever and bacteremia to fulminant disease with death ensuing within hours of the onset of clinical symptoms.
The clinical manifestations of both meningococcal meningitis and meningococcemia will be reviewed here. The microbiology, pathobiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of N. meningitidis infection are discussed separately. (See "Microbiology and pathobiology of Neisseria meningitidis" and "Epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis infection" and "Diagnosis of meningococcal infection" and "Treatment and prevention of meningococcal infection".)
MENINGITIS AND ACUTE MENINGOCOCCEMIA
Acute systemic meningococcal disease is most frequently manifest by three syndromes :
●Meningitis with accompanying meningococcemia
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- MENINGITIS AND ACUTE MENINGOCOCCEMIA
- Clinical manifestations
- - Worrisome signs
- Physical examination
- - Rash
- Disseminated intravascular coagulation
- Purpura fulminans
- Neurologic manifestations
- Myocardial involvement
- Association between lipooligosaccharide levels and prognosis
- CHRONIC MENINGOCOCCEMIA
- PNEUMONIA AND PHARYNGITIS
- URETHRITIS AND ASCENDING INFECTIONS
- IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASE
- OCCULT BACTEREMIA