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Clinical manifestations of dermatomyositis and polymyositis in adults

Authors
Marc L Miller, MD
Ruth Ann Vleugels, MD, MPH
Section Editors
Ira N Targoff, MD
Jeremy M Shefner, MD, PhD
Jeffrey Callen, MD, FACP, FAAD
Deputy Editors
Monica Ramirez Curtis, MD, MPH
Abena O Ofori, MD

INTRODUCTION

Dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) are idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, characterized by the shared features of proximal skeletal muscle weakness and by evidence of muscle inflammation [1-5]. DM, unlike PM, is associated with a variety of characteristic skin manifestations. A form of DM termed amyopathic DM (ADM, historically termed “dermatomyositis sine myositis”) is a condition in which patients have characteristic skin findings of DM without weakness or abnormal muscle enzymes.

The clinical and serologic features of DM and PM vary among affected individuals and populations, depending upon immunogenetic and possibly other genetic characteristics and also presumably upon potential environmental triggers [6,7]. The immune mechanisms and anatomic focus of injury within the muscle tissue in PM and DM appear distinct. The other major type of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy is inclusion body myositis.

The clinical and laboratory manifestations of DM and PM in adults will be reviewed here. The diagnosis, electrophysiologic and pathologic findings on diagnostic testing, differential diagnosis, and treatment of these diseases and of the related disorders that occur in children (known as juvenile DM and PM); the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies in adults and of juvenile DM and PM; the risk for malignancy in patients with DM and PM; and the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of inclusion body myositis are discussed separately.

(See "Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dermatomyositis and polymyositis in adults".)

(See "Initial treatment of dermatomyositis and polymyositis in adults" and "Treatment of recurrent and resistant dermatomyositis and polymyositis in adults" and "Juvenile dermatomyositis and polymyositis: Treatment, complications, and prognosis".)

                             

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Thu Mar 24 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
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