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Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction

Marc F Catalano, MD, FACG, FACP, FASGE, AGAF
Nirav C Thosani, MD, MHA
Section Editor
Douglas A Howell, MD, FASGE, FACG
Deputy Editor
Shilpa Grover, MD, MPH, AGAF


The sphincter of Oddi is a muscular structure that encompasses the confluence of the distal common bile duct and the pancreatic duct as they penetrate the wall of the duodenum (figure 1). The term sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) has been used to describe a clinical syndrome of biliary or pancreatic obstruction related to mechanical or functional abnormalities of the sphincter of Oddi.

The literature regarding SOD is often difficult to interpret because of differences in nomenclature [1]. The terms papillary stenosis, sclerosing papillitis, biliary spasm, biliary dyskinesia, and postcholecystectomy syndrome have been used synonymously with SOD. Despite this source of confusion, two separate pathologic entities are widely recognized based upon their distinct pathogenic mechanisms [2,3].

Sphincter of Oddi stenosis

Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia

The term sphincter of Oddi dysfunction encompasses both sphincter of Oddi stenosis and sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia.

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Literature review current through: Oct 2017. | This topic last updated: Aug 24, 2016.
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