Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Listeria monocytogenes infection
- Michael S Gelfand, MD
Michael S Gelfand, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- University of Tennessee College of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Daniel J Sexton, MD
Daniel J Sexton, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Infectious Diseases
- Section Editor — Bacterial Infections
- Professor of Medicine
- Duke University Medical Center
- Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Pediatrics
- Section Editor — Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Professor and Vice Chairman for Clinical Affairs
- Baylor College of Medicine
Listeria monocytogenes is an important bacterial pathogen in neonates, immunosuppressed patients, older adults, pregnant women, and, occasionally, previously healthy individuals. The importance of underlying diseases was illustrated in a series of 165 adults with culture-proven Listeria infection: 69 percent of cases in nonpregnant adults occurred in patients with cancer, AIDS, organ transplant recipients, or corticosteroid therapy .
The clinical manifestations and diagnosis of listerial infection will be reviewed here. The treatment, prognosis, and prevention of listerial infection and the epidemiology and pathogenesis of listerial infection are discussed separately. (See "Treatment, prognosis, and prevention of Listeria monocytogenes infection" and "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes infection".)
The incubation period for Listeria gastroenteritis is substantially shorter than the incubation period for invasive disease [2-4]. For gastroenteritis, the mean incubation period is 24 hours (range 6 hours to 10 days) , whereas, for invasive listeriosis, the median incubation period is 11 days with 90 percent of cases occurring within 28 days .
Listeria monocytogenes is thought of as a pathogen that causes invasive disease including meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients, individuals at the extremes of age including neonates and older adults, and pregnant women. However, Listeria is also a cause of self-limited febrile gastroenteritis in normal hosts who ingest high numbers of organisms . (See "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes infection", section on 'Clinical epidemiology'.)
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- INCUBATION PERIOD
- CLINICAL SYNDROMES
- Febrile gastroenteritis
- Infection in pregnancy
- Sepsis of unknown origin
- CNS infection
- - Meningoencephalitis
- - Cerebritis
- - Rhombencephalitis
- Focal infections
- CSF analysis
- - Polymerase chain reaction
- Stool culture
- Imaging studies
- SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- Clinical manifestations
- Diagnostic evaluation