Medline ® Abstract for Reference 6
of 'Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia'
Renovascular disease in children and adolescents.
Piercy KT, Hundley JC, Stafford JM, Craven TE, Nagaraj SK, Dean RH, Hansen KJ
J Vasc Surg. 2005;41(6):973.
PURPOSE: This retrospective review describes the surgical management of renovascular disease in 25 consecutive children and adolescents with severe hypertension.
METHODS: Patients</=21 years of age (mean age, 11.6 +/- 5.4 years; 12 females, 13 males) underwent repair of 34 renal arteries (RAs), and their management forms the basis of this report. Early and late blood pressure responses were adjusted for gender, age, and height. RA repair was evaluated by angiography, renal duplex sonography (RDS) scanning, or both. Primary patency and survival were estimated by product-limit methods.
RESULTS: Thirty-four RAs among 32 kidneys were repaired. Bilateral renal RA disease to a solitary kidney was present in nine patients. RA lesions included dysplasia (44%), RA hypoplasia (20%), midaortic syndrome (12%), RA aneurysm (12%), dissection (8%), and arteritis (4%). All patients had severe hypertension (>95 th percentile systolic or diastolic pressure adjusted for gender, age, and height). RA repair comprised 25 bypasses (73%) consisting of 28% saphenous vein, 60% hypogastric artery, and12% polytetrafluoroethylene; 2 patch angioplasties (6%), and 7 reimplantations (21%). Branch RA exposure was required in 28 kidneys (88%), and branch reconstruction was required in 61%. Warm in situ repair was used in 53%, in situ cold perfusion in 24%, and ex vivo cold perfusion in 23%. Of six bilateral RA repairs, one was staged and two patients are awaiting a staged repair. Combined aortic reconstruction was required in three patients. No unplanned nephrectomy was performed. There were no perioperative deaths. Hypertension was cured in 36%, improved in 56%, and failed in 8% at mean follow-up of 46.4 +/- 7.8 months. The mean calculated glomerular filtration rate increased from 82.0 mL/min/1.73 m 2 preoperatively to 98.2 mL/min/1.73 m 2 postoperatively. The postoperative patency of 30 RA reconstructions was evaluated by angiography, RDS scanning, or both. At mean follow-up of 32.8 months (median, 21.2 months), primary RA patency was 91%. No failures were observed after 2 months follow-up. Estimated survival was 100% at 60 months, with one death 9 years after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Renovascular hypertension in children and adolescents was caused by a heterogeneous group of lesions. All patients had RA repair, with arterial autografts in most of the RA bypasses. Cold perfusion preservation was used in half of the complex branch RA repairs. These strategies provided 91% primary patency at mean follow-up of 32.8 months, with beneficial blood pressure response in 92%. Surgical repair of clinically significant renovascular disease in children and adolescents is supported by these results.
Division of Surgical Sciences, Section on Vascular Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1095, USA.