Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstract for Reference 16

of 'Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia'

Clinical spectrum of symptomatic external iliac fibromuscular dysplasia.
Sauer L, Reilly LM, Goldstone J, Ehrenfeld WK, Hutton JE, Stoney RJ
J Vasc Surg. 1990;12(4):488.
External iliac fibromuscular dysplasia is a rare and usually asymptomatic disorder. We report eight symptomatic patients seen over a 15-year period and review pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for the three following distinct lower extremity ischemic sequelae: (1) Emboli--episodic focal digital ischemia (blue toe) was seen in three patients. Resection and primary anastomosis of focal iliac ulcerative fibromuscular dysplasia (one patient) or resection and replacement (two patients) removed the embolic source and relieved the symptoms. (2) Chronic ischemia--gradual onset of full leg claudication in four patients was treated by operative graduated intraluminal dilation in three patients and prosthetic bypass in one. Arteriography subsequently showed a remodeled lumen in the three patients who underwent dilation. (3) Dissection--acute onset leg ischemia resulted from presumed dissection of the external iliac segment. After 4 months of conservative management of antiplatelet agents and exercise, symptoms resolved completely, and arteriogram showed spontaneous restoration of a normal lumen in the dissected segment. The clinical presentation of fibromuscular dysplasia may mimic other arterial processes such as atherosclerosis. Diagnosis is made only by arteriography with specific magnification views of the external iliac arteries and careful surveillance of the renal arteries. Appropriate treatment should be tailored to the clinical presenting symptom. For microembolic disease, resection and replacement are required. For chronic ischemia, intraluminal dilation is generally sufficient and durable and has proved to be a simpler and acceptable alternative to replacement or bypass. In acute dissection, surgical intervention may be deferred if the limb is viable to allow spontaneous healing and remodeling. Persistent symptoms may be the only indication for intervention in this ischemic manifestation of external iliac fibromuscular dysplasia.
Division of Vascular Surgery, University of California, San Francisco 94143.