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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 70

of 'Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Fanconi anemia'

Central nervous system abnormalities in Fanconi anaemia: patterns and frequency on magnetic resonance imaging.
Stivaros SM, Alston R, Wright NB, Chandler K, Bonney D, Wynn RF, Will AM, Punekar M, Loughran S, Kilday JP, Schindler D, Patel L, Meyer S
Br J Radiol. 2015;88(1056):20150088. Epub 2015 9 15.
OBJECTIVE: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disease associated with congenital and developmental abnormalities resulting from the disruption of a multigenic DNA damage response pathway. This study aimed to define the MRI appearances of the brain in patients with FA in correlation with their genetic and clinical features.
METHODS: A review of the brain MRI in 20 patients with FA was performed. Pituitary size and frequencies of the radiological findings of individuals with FA and age-matched controls were determined.
RESULTS: Abnormalities were identified in 18 (90%) patients with FA, the commonest being a small pituitary (68%, p < 0.01 females and p < 0.001 males). In five cases (25%, p = 0.02), the pituitary morphology was also abnormal. Posterior fossa abnormalities were seen in six cases (30%, p = 0.01) including Chiari I malformation (n = 3), Dandy-Walker variant (n = 2) and cerebellar atrophy (n = 2).Six patients (30%, p = 0.01) had morphological structural variation of the corpus callosum (CC).
CONCLUSION: The incidence of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in FA is higher than previously reported, with a midline predominance that points to impact in the early stages of CNS development. MRI brain imaging is important for endocrine assessment and pre-transplant evaluation and can make an important contribution to clinical decision-making.
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The incidence of brain structural abnormalities in FA is higher than previously reported, with abnormalities of the posterior fossa, CC and pituitary being common. There is an association with gender and reduction in pituitary size which does not strongly correlate with biochemically evident endocrine abnormality.
1 Centre for Imaging Sciences, University of Manchester, Institute of Population Health, Manchester, UK.