Classification of migraine in children
- Hope O'Brien, MD, FAHS
Hope O'Brien, MD, FAHS
- Assistant Professor of Neurology
- Director, Young Adult Headache Clinic
- Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
- Section Editors
- Marc C Patterson, MD, FRACP
Marc C Patterson, MD, FRACP
- Section Editor — Pediatric Neurology
- Professor of Neurology, Pediatrics, and Medical Genetics
- Chair, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology
- Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
- Jerry W Swanson, MD, MHPE
Jerry W Swanson, MD, MHPE
- Section Editor — Headache
- Professor of Neurology
- Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Migraine is the most common acute and recurrent headache syndrome in children. It is characterized by periodic episodes of paroxysmal headache accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and relief with sleep.
This topic will review the classification of migraine in children. Other aspects of migraine are discussed separately. (See "Pathophysiology, clinical features, and diagnosis of migraine in children" and "Acute treatment of migraine in children".)
The 1988 classification of headaches by the International Headache Society (IHS)  did not specifically address children . This system replaced the terms "classic and common" with the terms "with and without aura." Migraine was classified into migraine with aura, migraine without aura, complicated migraine, and migraine variants.
In a 2004 revision of headache classification, the term "Complicated migraine" was replaced by "Complications of migraine" . The 2004 and 2013 revisions also reclassified some syndromes unique to children that historically were considered manifestations of migraine. These syndromes – cyclical vomiting, abdominal migraine, benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood, and benign paroxysmal torticollis – are usually associated with a positive family history and often evolve into more characteristic migraine symptoms with age. They were classified in 2004 as "childhood periodic syndromes that are commonly precursors of migraine" . In 2013, they were reclassified as "Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine" . (See 'Episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine' below.)
Some of the other disorders discussed here, including Alice in Wonderland syndrome and confusional migraine, are not addressed in the International Classification of Headache Disorders system . (See 'Other pediatric migraine variants' below.)
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- HISTORICAL ASPECTS
- MIGRAINE WITHOUT AURA
- Menstrual migraine
- PREMONITORY SYMPTOMS
- MIGRAINE WITH AURA
- Typical aura
- Hemiplegic migraine
- Migraine with brainstem aura
- Vestibular migraine
- Retinal migraine
- EPISODIC SYNDROMES THAT MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH MIGRAINE
- Cyclic vomiting syndrome
- Abdominal migraine
- Benign paroxysmal vertigo
- Benign paroxysmal torticollis
- CHRONIC MIGRAINE
- COMPLICATIONS OF MIGRAINE
- OTHER PEDIATRIC MIGRAINE VARIANTS
- Alice in Wonderland syndrome
- Confusional migraine
- Recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy (Ophthalmoplegic migraine)
- SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS