UpToDate
Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2016 UpToDate®

Classification of lower extremity chronic venous disorders

Author
Greg Moneta, MD
Section Editors
John F Eidt, MD
Joseph L Mills, Sr, MD
Deputy Editor
Kathryn A Collins, MD, PhD, FACS

INTRODUCTION

Lower extremity chronic venous disorders encompass an entire spectrum of morphologic and functional abnormalities of the venous system. They can present in childhood as congenital lesions or acquired disorders which by adulthood are quite common. Vein-related problems may or may not be symptomatic and include a wide range of clinical signs varying from minimal superficial venous dilation to edema and/or chronic skin changes with ulceration and even so-called venous claudication.

An overview of the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification of lower extremity chronic venous disorders will be presented here. An overview of the clinical evaluation and management of lower extremity chronic venous disease is presented elsewhere. (See "Overview and management of lower extremity chronic venous disease".)

TERMINOLOGY

Standard definitions for venous diagnosis have been adopted by international consensus [1].

Chronic venous disorders — This term includes the full spectrum of morphological and functional abnormalities of the venous system.

Chronic venous disease — The term chronic venous disease is used when morphological or functional abnormalities (venous valvular incompetence or venous obstruction) are present of long duration and manifested as symptoms and/or signs indicating the need for treatment and/or further investigation. Venous valvular incompetence is identified by duplex ultrasound as retrograde venous flow of abnormal duration. (See "Diagnostic evaluation of chronic venous insufficiency".)

                                

Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Mon May 09 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc.
References
Top
  1. Eklof B, Perrin M, Delis KT, et al. Updated terminology of chronic venous disorders: the VEIN-TERM transatlantic interdisciplinary consensus document. J Vasc Surg 2009; 49:498.
  2. Langer RD, Ho E, Denenberg JO, et al. Relationships between symptoms and venous disease: the San Diego population study. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165:1420.
  3. Caggiati A, Bergan JJ, Gloviczki P, et al. Nomenclature of the veins of the lower limbs: an international interdisciplinary consensus statement. J Vasc Surg 2002; 36:416.
  4. Caggiati A, Bergan JJ, Gloviczki P, et al. Nomenclature of the veins of the lower limb: extensions, refinements, and clinical application. J Vasc Surg 2005; 41:719.
  5. Eklöf B, Rutherford RB, Bergan JJ, et al. Revision of the CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders: consensus statement. J Vasc Surg 2004; 40:1248.
  6. CRANLEY JJ, KRAUSE RJ, STRASSER ES. Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremity. Surgery 1961; 49:48.
  7. Kakkos SK, Rivera MA, Matsagas MI, et al. Validation of the new venous severity scoring system in varicose vein surgery. J Vasc Surg 2003; 38:224.
  8. Rutherford RB, Padberg FT Jr, Comerota AJ, et al. Venous severity scoring: An adjunct to venous outcome assessment. J Vasc Surg 2000; 31:1307.
  9. Kahn SR, Partsch H, Vedantham S, et al. Definition of post-thrombotic syndrome of the leg for use in clinical investigations: a recommendation for standardization. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7:879.
  10. Kahn SR. Measurement properties of the Villalta scale to define and classify the severity of the post-thrombotic syndrome. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7:884.
  11. Labropoulos N, Gasparis AP, Pefanis D, et al. Secondary chronic venous disease progresses faster than primary. J Vasc Surg 2009; 49:704.
  12. González-Consuegra RV, Verdú J. Quality of life in people with venous leg ulcers: an integrative review. J Adv Nurs 2011; 67:926.
Topic Outline

GRAPHICS

CALCULATORS