Medline ® Abstract for Reference 9
of 'Chronic functional constipation and fecal incontinence in infants and children: Treatment'
Clinical approach to fecal soiling in children.
Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2000;39(10):603.
Fecal soiling is common in childhood and can be caused by stool toileting refusal, fecal incontinence due to organic disease, or encopresis due to functional constipation. Anatomical, neurologic, and inflammatory causes for fecal soiling are ruled out by history and physical examination and, if necessary, by anorectal manometry, barium enema, and rectal biopsy. The initial treatment suggestion for children with stool toileting refusal is to put the child back into pull-ups or diapers. Most children with fecal soiling due to organic disease continue with some degree of incontinence despite optimal medical management. Antegrade enema administration helps those with severe fecal incontinence due to organic causes who do not respond to medical management. Successful treatment of constipation and encopresis requires a combination of medical therapy, nutritional intervention, behavioral intervention, and long-term compliance with laxative use. The combined treatment approach improves the constipation and encopresis in all patients who comply with the treatment program. In some children, cow's milk protein intolerance may be the cause. In them, cow's milk protein needs to be eliminated.
The University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.