Medline ® Abstract for Reference 16
of 'Chronic functional constipation and fecal incontinence in infants and children: Treatment'
Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002;14(5):570.
A careful history and physical examination will help to differentiate between encopresis with or without constipation and fecal incontinence caused by anatomic or organic disease. Most children with encopresis with or without functional constipation require no or minimal laboratory workup. Successful treatment of encopresis requires a combination of parent and child education, behavioral intervention, medical therapy, and long-term compliance with the treatment regimen. The conventional treatment approach consists of behavior modification and laxative for children with encopresis with constipation and behavior modification alone for the few children with encopresis without constipation. Almost every patient will experience dramatic improvement in encopresis. Recovery rates are 30% to 50% after 1 year and 48% to 75% after 5 years.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 52242-1083, USA. email@example.com