Medline ® Abstract for Reference 135
of 'Chronic functional constipation and fecal incontinence in infants and children: Treatment'
Longitudinal follow-up of children with functional nonretentive fecal incontinence.
Voskuijl WP, Reitsma JB, van Ginkel R, Büller HA, Taminiau JA, Benninga MA
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(1):67.
BACKGROUND& AIMS: Functional nonretentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI), incontinence in the absence of signs of fecal retention, is a frustrating phenomenon in children. No data on long-term outcome are available. The aim was to investigate the long-term outcome of FNRFI patients after intensive medical treatment.
METHODS: Between 1990 and 1999, 119 patients (96 boys) with FNRFI were enrolled in 2 prospective, randomized trials investigating the effect of biofeedback training and/or laxative treatment. Follow-up (FU) was performed at 6 months, 1 year, and thereafter annually until September 2004. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate symptoms. Success was defined as a fecal incontinence frequency<1 per 2 weeks.
RESULTS: Median age (25th-75th percentiles) was 9.2 years (range, 7.9-11.6 years). A 90% FU was achieved at all stages of the study. After 2 years of intensive therapy, 33 of 112 (29.5%) patients were successfully treated. The cumulative success percentage after 7 years of FU was 80%. At the biologic ages of 12 and 18 years, 49.4% (40/81)and 15.5% (9/58), respectively, of the patients still had fecal incontinence. Duration of fecal incontinence, with 4 years of age as the starting age for fecal incontinence (when a child should be toilet trained), was not related to successful outcome or relapse. Relapse occurred in 37% of patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Only 29% of the patients with FNRFI were successfully treated after 2 years of intensive treatment. Despite recovery in the majority of patients beyond puberty, at age 18 years, 15% continued to have fecal incontinence.
Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org