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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 64

of 'Chemotherapy hepatotoxicity and dose modification in patients with liver disease'

Depletion in vitro of mitochondrial glutathione in rat hepatocytes and enhancement of lipid peroxidation by adriamycin and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU).
Meredith MJ, Reed DJ
Biochem Pharmacol. 1983;32(8):1383.
Treatment of isolated rat hepatocytes with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) and adriamycin (ADR) produced a complete depletion of cellular glutathione accompanied by a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Separation of the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic pools of glutathione by digitonin disruption showed that, although BCNU, a specific inhibitor of glutathione, completely depleted the cytoplasmic pool of glutathione, the mitochondrial supply was not entirely expended and LDH leakage was only moderately stimulated. Only after depletion of the mitochondrial supply of glutathione by ADR and BCNU did LDH leakage increase markedly. Measurement of lipid peroxidation, by monitoring malondialdehyde through the thiobarbituric acid procedure, showed that malondialdehyde accumulated more extensively and at a rate mirroring release of LDH from ADR/BCNU treated cells. The time of increase in LDH leakage and malondialdehyde production corresponded to the time of depletion of mitochondrial glutathione to less than 10% of the initial pool size. No such increase in LDH leakage was observed with BCNU or ADU treatment alone or when aminopyrine, an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, was included. Aminopyrine was found to prevent, in a dose-dependent manner, both LDH leakage and malondialdehyde production stimulated by ADR/BCNU treatment. The protective effect peaked at 5 mM aminopyrine, and higher concentrations produced significant LDH leakageexhibiting LDH release kinetics different than those observed with ADR/BCNU. Although aminopyrine had no effect on the rate or extent of cytoplasmic glutathione depletion by ADR/BCNU treatment, the mitochondrial pool was conserved significantly in those cells protected by aminopyrine. These data suggest that enhanced hepatocyte damage observed after treatment with a combination of ADR and BCNU versus BCNU or ADR alone is due to the extensive depletion of mitochondrial glutathione supported by ADR after glutathione reductase inhibition. Further, enhancement of lipid peroxidation is strongly implicated in the mechanism of adriamycin toxicity.