Medline ® Abstract for Reference 162
of 'Chemotherapy hepatotoxicity and dose modification in patients with liver disease'
Etoposide pharmacokinetics in patients with normal and abnormal organ function.
Arbuck SG, Douglass HO, Crom WR, Goodwin P, Silk Y, Cooper C, Evans WE
J Clin Oncol. 1986;4(11):1690.
Precise guidelines for dose modification of etoposide in patients with hepatic dysfunction have not been determined. Etoposide pharmacokinetics were determined in 17 patients. Nine patients had bilirubin less than or equal to 1 mg/dL and eight had bilirubin ranging from 1.9 to 23 mg/dL. Twelve patients received etoposide 100 mg/m2 days 1, 3, and 5, in combination with cisplatin 70 mg/m2 or iproplatin 225 mg/m2 on day 1. Five patients received only one dose of etoposide. Etoposide was measured using a published high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method which also quantitates picro etoposide and its hydroxy acid. Systemic clearance, Vdss and t1/2 beta averaged (+/- SD) 21.4 (+/- 7.4) mL/min/m2, 10.7 (+/- 4.1) L/m2, and 8.1 (+/- 2.8) hours in the nine patients with bilirubin less than or equal to 1 mg/dL, and 22.4 (+/- 9.6) mL/min/m2, 13.6 (+/- 11.3) L/m2, and 8.4 (+/- 3.9) hours in the eight patients with bilirubin 1.9 to 23.0 mg/dL. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis of liver and renal function tests and other patient-specific variables identified creatinine clearance as the strongest predictor of etoposide systemic clearance (r2 = 40.8). Serum albumin was identified as the next strongest predictor, improving the r2 to 57.3%. Cumulative biliary excretion of unchanged etoposide and glucuronide or sulfate conjugates over 48 hours accounted for less than 3% of the dose in six patients studied. Toxicity occurred in patients with normal and abnormal bilirubin and was unrelated to etoposide clearance. Patients with total bilirubin 1.9 to 23 mg/dL, but creatinine clearance greater than 30 mL/min/m2 had etoposide clearance within the range for patients with normal liver function (16.8 to 35 mL/min/m2). Although these patients did not have reduced etoposide clearance, the major routes of etoposide non-renal elimination remain to be clearly defined. Additional patients should be evaluated to establish more precise guidelines for dosing etoposide in patients with abnormal liver function.