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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 136

of 'Chemotherapy hepatotoxicity and dose modification in patients with liver disease'

Mitoxantrone. A review of its pharmacology and clinical efficacy in the management of hormone-resistant advanced prostate cancer.
Wiseman LR, Spencer CM
Drugs Aging. 1997;10(6):473.
The antineoplastic agent mitoxantrone in combination with a corticosteroid (either prednisone or hydrocortisone) has shown clinical efficacy as palliative treatment for a proportion of patients (about 35 to 40%) with hormone-resistant advanced prostate cancer, a disease which predominantly affects elderly men and for which few systemic treatment options are available. Palliative end-points including pain relief, decreased analgesic use and reduced prostate specific antigen levels (a marker of tumour response) are reached in a greater percentage of patients receiving combination therapy than corticosteroid alone. In addition, there are generally greater improvements in quality-of-life parameters in mitoxantrone recipients. However, combined treatment offers no survival advantage over corticosteroid monotherapy. Neutropenia is the most common toxicity associated with mitoxantone therapy and may necessitate dosage reduction in some patients. Otherwise, mitoxantrone generally has a more favourable tolerability profile than has been established for other cytotoxic agents such as doxorubicin with regard to acute adverse events (e.g. nausea/vomiting, anorexia, constipation, alopecia, malaise/ fatigue, oedema) and cardiac toxicity. In conclusion, administration of mitoxantrone plus a corticosteroid can provide palliation for some elderly patients with hormone-resistant advanced prostate cancer, and is thus a valuable first-linetreatment for this indication.
Adis International Limited, Auckland, New Zealand. demail@adis.co.nz