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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 90

of 'Chemotherapy for advanced exocrine pancreatic cancer'

Randomized phase II study of gemcitabine and S-1 combination versus gemcitabine alone in the treatment of unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer (Japan Clinical Cancer Research Organization PC-01 study).
Ozaka M, Matsumura Y, Ishii H, Omuro Y, Itoi T, Mouri H, Hanada K, Kimura Y, Maetani I, Okabe Y, Tani M, Ikeda T, Hijioka S, Watanabe R, Ohoka S, Hirose Y, Suyama M, Egawa N, Sofuni A, Ikari T, Nakajima T
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012 May;69(5):1197-204. Epub 2012 Jan 17.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of gemcitabine (GEM) and S-1 (GS) in comparison to GEM alone (G) for unresectable pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: In this multicenter randomized phase II study, we randomly assigned unresectable pancreatic cancer patients to either the GS group or the G group. The GS group regimen consists of intravenous 1,000 mg/m(2) GEM during 30 min on days 1 and 8, combined with 80 mg/m(2) oral S-1 twice daily on days 1-14, repeated every 3 weeks. On the other hand, the G group regimen consists of intravenous 1,000 mg/m(2) GEM on days 1, 8, and 15, repeated every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included treatment toxicity, clinical response benefit, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival.
RESULTS: We registered 117 patients from 16 institutions between June 2007 and August, 2010. The ORR of the GS group was 28.3%, whereas that of the G group was 6.8%. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.005). The disease control rate was 64.2% in the GS group and 44.1% in the G group. Median PFS was 6.15 months in the GS group and 3.78 month in the G group. This was also statistically significant (P = 0.0007). Moreover, the median overall survival (OS) of the GS group was significantly longer than that of the G group (13.7 months vs. 8.0 months; P = 0.035). The major grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (54.7% in the GS group and 22.0% in the G group), thrombocytopenia (15.1% in the GS group and 5.1% in the G group), and skin rash (9.4% in the GS group).
CONCLUSIONS: The GS group showed stronger anticancer activity than the G group, suggesting the need for a large randomized phase III study to confirm GS advantages in a specific subset.
Department of Gastroenterology, Cancer Institute Hospital, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan. masato.ozaka@jfcr.or.jp