Causes, presentation, and evaluation of sellar masses
- Peter J Snyder, MD
Peter J Snyder, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Endocrinology
- Section Editor — Pituitary Disease; Male Reproductive Endocrinology
- Professor of Medicine
- University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Sellar masses typically present in one or more ways:
●With neurologic symptoms, such as visual impairment or headache
●As an incidental finding on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for some other reason
●With hormonal abnormalities
This topic will review the causes, clinical manifestations, and evaluation of sellar masses. The clinical presentation and management of individual pituitary tumors and of hypopituitarism are discussed separately. (See "Clinical manifestations and evaluation of hyperprolactinemia" and "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of gonadotroph and other clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas" and "Clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism" and "Diagnosis of hypopituitarism".)
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- Pituitary adenomas
- - Incidence and prevalence
- - Genetics
- - Classification
- Pituitary hyperplasia
- Other benign tumors
- - Craniopharyngioma
- - Meningioma
- - Pituicytoma
- Malignant tumors
- - Primary
- - Metastatic disease
- Arteriovenous fistula of the cavernous sinus
- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
- Visual defects
- Other neurologic symptoms
- Hormone deficiencies
- EVALUATION OF A SELLAR MASS
- Radiologic procedures
- - MRI
- Unenhanced image
- Gadolinium-enhanced image
- - CT scan
- Hormonal evaluation
- - Hormonal hypersecretion
- - Hormonal hyposecretion
- Pituitary incidentaloma
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS