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Causes of chronic wrist pain in children and adolescents

Authors
D Scott Upton, MD
Joseph Chorley, MD
Section Editors
Albert C Hergenroeder, MD
Richard G Bachur, MD
Deputy Editor
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH

INTRODUCTION

Injuries to the wrist are common in children, adolescents, and young adults. A thorough understanding of the anatomy of the growing wrist, common wrist injuries, and other causes of wrist pain are essential to accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Causes of chronic wrist pain in children and adolescents include acute injuries that have failed to heal, overuse syndromes, and pain unrelated to trauma. Traumatic and nontraumatic causes of chronic wrist pain in children and adolescents will be presented here. Acute wrist injuries, wrist anatomy, and the evaluation of wrist pain in children and adolescents are discussed separately. (See "Overview of acute wrist injuries in children and adolescents" and "Evaluation of wrist pain and injury in children and adolescents".)

OVERUSE INJURIES

Overuse injuries, which include tendonitis, distal radius physeal stress reaction, Kienböck's disease, chronic distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury, neuropathy, and impaction syndromes, are more common among adolescents than younger children (table 1). Overuse injuries have insidious symptoms; they frequently are identified when an acute injury is superimposed at the site of previous microtrauma [1]. Risk factors for overuse injuries in children and adolescents include rapid intensification of training, muscle-tendon imbalance, poor conditioning before training, deficient nutrition, associated chronic disease, and periods of rapid growth [1,2].

Tendon injuries — Tendonitis involves inflammation of the tendon or its synovial sheath. Tendonitis is caused by repetitive motion or impact stress (eg, in gymnastics, racquet sports). Clinical features include pain that is exacerbated by activity and can be reproduced by passive stretching of the affected tendon or active contraction of the associated muscle [3]. Radiographs are not usually necessary in the evaluation of patients with tendonitis but may be helpful in excluding other injuries or conditions.

Treatment strategies for tendonitis include rest, bracing, antiinflammatory agents, glucocorticoid injections, and correcting the training error or biomechanical etiology. Sports activity can be gradually resumed once symptoms have resolved.

                    

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Tue Nov 08 00:00:00 GMT 2016.
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