Care of the umbilicus and management of umbilical disorders
- Debra L Palazzi, MD, MEd
Debra L Palazzi, MD, MEd
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases Section
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Mary L Brandt, MD
Mary L Brandt, MD
- Professor of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Teresa K Duryea, MD
Teresa K Duryea, MD
- Section Editor — General Pediatrics
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Richard Martin, MD
Richard Martin, MD
- Section Editor — Neonatology
- Professor, Pediatrics, Reproductive Biology, and Physiology & Biophysics
- Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
At birth, the umbilical cord, which provided vascular flow between the fetus and placenta, is clamped and cut. Within the first week of life, the remnant umbilical cord stump separates from the neonate, creating the umbilicus (commonly referred to as the navel).
Infection, hernia, granulomas, and congenital anomalies can occur in the umbilicus and are more commonly seen in infancy.
The care of the umbilical cord and clinical problems associated with the umbilicus will be reviewed here.
Umbilical cord — The umbilical cord contains two arteries and one vein, which are surrounded and supported by gelatinous tissue called Wharton's jelly.
Thickness — At birth, the average diameter and circumference of the umbilical cord in a normal term infant is 1.5 and 3.6 cm, respectively [1,2]. Both thick and thin cords are associated with increased risk of significant pathology. (See 'Newborn examination' below.)
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- Umbilical cord
- - Thickness
- - Length
- - Coiling
- UMBILICAL CORD AT BIRTH
- Newborn examination
- - Single umbilical artery
- Cord care
- Cord separation
- - Delayed separation
- OMPHALOMESENTERIC DUCT ANOMALIES
- URACHAL ANOMALIES
- UMBILICAL HERNIA
- Clinical findings
- UMBILICAL MASSES
- - Umbilical granuloma
- - Umbilical polyp
- - Ectopic tissue
- Older children and adults
- OTHER ABNORMALITIES
- Appendicoumbilical fistula
- Enteric fistula
- UMBILICAL INFECTION
- Necrotizing fasciitis
- Infected umbilical piercing
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS