Medline ® Abstract for Reference 11
of 'Cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure: Implantation and other considerations'
Prevalence and predictor factors of severe venous obstruction after cardiovascular electronic device implantation.
Santini M, Di Fusco SA, Santini A, Magris B, Pignalberi C, Aquilani S, Colivicchi F, Gargaro A, Ricci RP
AIMS: Despite not being uncommon, limited evidence exists about predisposing factors for venous obstruction in patients with implantable electronic devices. We aimed to assess the prevalence of severe venous obstruction in patients with intravenous devices and identify predictor factors.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 184 patients underwent venography to detect venous obstruction associated with the inserted lead. Vessel obstruction was graded as venous occlusion (complete flow interruption), severe obstruction (narrowing>90%), or mild-moderate obstruction (narrowing 50-90%). Severe venous obstruction/occlusion prevalence was 11.4% (n = 21) and was always asymptomatic. Collateral circulation was found in 80.9% of patients with severe obstruction/occlusion. Twelve patients (6.5%) had 3 leads. The rates of patients with secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death as indication for implantable devices and of those of patients with 3 leads were significantly greater in the group with severe obstruction/occlusion than in the non-severe obstruction/occlusion group (respectively, P = 0.004 and P = 0.03). Logistic analysis adjusted for venous thromboembolic risk factors confirmed that secondary prevention of suddencardiac death as indication for implantable devices [odds ratio (OR), 7.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-35.3; P = 0.017]and the presence of 3 leads (OR, 8.5; 95% CI: 1.75-41.35; P = 0.008) were predictors of severe obstruction/occlusion.
CONCLUSION: In patients with implantable devices, severe venous obstruction prevalence is not negligible and the lack of symptoms does not exclude it. The presence of three leads and sudden cardiac death as indication for implantable devices seem to be associated with the presence of severe venous obstruction/occlusion.
Cardiovascular Department, San Filippo Neri Hospital, via Martinotti 20, Rome 00135, Italy.