Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstract for Reference 23

of 'Carbon dioxide monitoring (capnography)'

Confirmation of endotracheal tube placement: a miniaturized infrared qualitative CO2 detector.
Vukmir RB, Heller MB, Stein KL
Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20(7):726.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: A miniaturized, infrared, solid-state, end-tidal CO2 detector was used to confirm emergency endotracheal tube (ETT) placement.
DESIGN: This prospective, clinical study used a miniature, infrared, solid-state end-tidal CO2 detector to confirm ETT placement in an acute setting.
SETTING: The ICU, emergency department, and hospital floor.
TYPE OF PARTICIPANTS: There were 88 consecutive adult patients requiring 100 emergency intubations.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The indication for airway intervention was considered urgent in 79% and under arrest conditions in 21%. The mean number of intubation attempts was 1.83 (range, one to five) with difficulty of intubation of 6.48 and confirmation of 7.75, on a linear scale from 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest). Determination of ETT position revealed intratracheal intubation in 96% and esophageal intubation in 4%. Placement was confirmed by direct visualization or radiography in all cases. Sensitivity and specificity for ETT localization was 100% (P less than .0001).
CONCLUSION: This hand-held infrared capnometer reliably confirms ETT placement under emergency conditions.
Department of Critical Care Medicine/Anesthesia, Presbyterian-University Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.