Medline ® Abstracts for References 80,91-93
of 'Cancer of the appendix and pseudomyxoma peritonei'
Right hemicolectomy does not confer a survival advantage in patients with mucinous carcinoma of the appendix and peritoneal seeding.
González-Moreno S, Sugarbaker PH
Br J Surg. 2004;91(3):304.
BACKGROUND: Traditionally epithelial malignancies of the appendix with or without carcinomatosis have been treated by right hemicolectomy. Recent accumulation of a large number of patients with this disease has enabled a re-evaluation of this surgical judgement.
METHODS: Clinical data on 501 patients with epithelial malignancy of the appendix were collected prospectively. All patients had peritoneal seeding at the time of referral and were treated by cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. The main independent variable for statistical analysis was the surgical procedure used to resect the primary cancer (appendicectomy alone versus right hemicolectomy). Nineteen other clinical and pathological variables were considered as control variables. The endpoint for all analyses was survival.
RESULTS: Median follow-up after the initial diagnosis was 4 years. The rate of regional lymph node positivity was 5.0 per cent. When the incidence of lymph node metastasis was determined by histological type, it was statistically significantly higher in intestinal (66.7 per cent) than in mucinous (4.2 per cent) tumours (P<0.001). The presence of lymph node metastases had no influence on prognosis (P = 0.155). The surgical procedure (appendicectomy alone versus right hemicolectomy) had an influence on patient survival by univariate analysis (P<0.001), but not by multivariate analysis (P = 0.258).
CONCLUSION: Right hemicolectomy does not confer a survival advantage in patients with mucinous appendiceal tumours with peritoneal seeding. These data suggest that right hemicolectomy should be avoided unless metastatic involvement of the appendiceal or distal ileocolic lymph nodes is documented by biopsy, or the resection margin is inadequate.
Program in Peritoneal Surface Malignancy, The Washington Cancer Institute, Washington, DC, USA.
Toxicity of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy.
Verwaal VJ, van Tinteren H, Ruth SV, Zoetmulder FA
J Surg Oncol. 2004;85(2):61.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cytoreduction with hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a treatment with a high morbidity. Optimal patients selection can possible reduce toxicity and complications.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Complications and toxicity of 102 patients were studied. Toxicity was graded according National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC) classification. A complication was defined as any post-operative event that needed re-intervention. Potential patients, tumor, and treatment factors were studied on their relation to complications.
RESULTS: Grade 3, 4, or 5 toxicity was observed in 66 patients (65%). Eight patients died of treatment-related causes. Surgical complications occurred in 36 patients (35%). Fistulae were frequently encountered (18 patients). The risk of a complicated recovery was higher in carcinomatosis with recurrent colorectal cancer (P = 0.009) and in the case of more than five regions affected (P = 0.044), who had a Simplified Peritoneal Cancer (SPC) score of 13 (P = 0.012) and with an incomplete initial cytoreduction (P = 0.035). Patients with blood loss exceeding 6 L (P = 0.028) and those with three or more anastomoses also had an increased post-operative complication rate (P = 0.018).
CONCLUSIONS: Toxicity of cytoreduction followed by HIPEC was 65% (Grade 3-5 NCI CTC), with a surgical complication rate of 35%. Patients with six or seven regions involved and those in whom complete cytoreduction cannot be reached are probably better off without this treatment.
Department of Surgery, The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands. email@example.com
Surgery combined with peritonectomy procedures and intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia in abdominal cancers with peritoneal carcinomatosis: a phase II study.
Glehen O, Mithieux F, Osinsky D, Beaujard AC, Freyer G, Guertsch P, Francois Y, Peyrat P, Panteix G, Vignal J, Gilly FN
J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(5):799.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the tolerance of peritonectomy procedures (PP) combined with intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia (IPCH) in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), a phase II study was carried out from January 1998 to September 2001.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients (35 females, mean age 49.3) were included for PC from colorectal cancer (26 patients), ovarian cancer (seven patients), gastric cancer (six patients), peritoneal mesothelioma (five patients), pseudomyxoma peritonei (seven patients), and miscellaneous reasons (five patients). Surgeries were performed mainly on advanced patients (40 patients stages 3 and 4 and 16 patients stages 2 and 1) and were synchronous in 36 patients. All patients underwent surgical resection of their primary tumor with PP and IPCH (with mitomycin C, cisplatinum, or both) with a closed sterile circuit and inflow temperatures ranging from 46 degrees to 48 degrees C. Three patients were included twice.
RESULTS: A macroscopic complete resection was performed in 27 cases. The mortality and morbidity rates were one of 56 and 16 of 56, respectively. The 2-year survival rate was 79.0% for patients with macroscopic complete resection and 44.7% for patients without macroscopic complete resection (P =.001). For the patients included twice, two are alive without evidence of disease, 54 and 47 months after the first procedure.
CONCLUSION: IPCH and PP are able to achieve unexpected long-term survival in patients with bulky PC. However, one must be careful when selecting the patients for such an aggressive treatment, as morbidity rate remains high even for an experienced team.
Surgical Department, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, Medical Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Lyon Sud, Pierre Bénite, France.
Extensive cytoreductive surgery for appendiceal carcinomatosis: morbidity, mortality, and survival.
Wagner PL, Austin F, Maduekwe U, Mavanur A, Ramalingam L, Jones HL, Holtzman MP, Ahrendt SA, Zureikat AH, Pingpank JF, Zeh HJ, Bartlett DL, Choudry HA
Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Apr;20(4):1056-62. Epub 2013 Mar 2.
BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) are frequently used to treat appendiceal carcinomatosis. Some patients require multivisceral resection because of the volume of disease. It is unclear whether extent of CRS impacts survival in appendiceal carcinomatosis.
METHODS: We analyzed 282 patients undergoing attempted CRS/HIPEC for appendiceal carcinomatosis. Patients were defined as having undergone Extensive CRS (n = 60) if they had>3 organ resections or>2 anastomoses; a subgroup of Extreme CRS patients (n = 10) had≥5 organ resections and≥3 anastomoses. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariate Cox-regression models were used to identify prognostic factors affecting outcomes.
RESULTS: Relative to the comparison group, patients undergoing Extensive CRS had a higher median peritoneal carcinomatosis index, operative duration, blood loss, and length of stay. No difference in completeness of cytoreduction, severe morbidity, or 60-day mortality was evident. Subgroup analysis of 10 patients undergoing extreme CRS likewise revealed no increase in severe morbidity or mortality. Median progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 23.5 and 74 months in the comparison group; 18.5 (p = 0.086) and 51 (p = 0.85) months in the Extensive CRS group; and 40 months and not reached in the Extreme CRS subgroup. In a multivariable analysis, extent of CRS was not independently associated with PFS or OS.
CONCLUSIONS: Extensive CRS is associated with greater OR time, blood loss, and length of stay, but is not associated with higher morbidity, mortality, or inferior oncologic outcomes in patients with appendiceal carcinomatosis.
Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org