Medline ® Abstracts for References 80,85
of 'Cancer of the appendix and pseudomyxoma peritonei'
Right hemicolectomy does not confer a survival advantage in patients with mucinous carcinoma of the appendix and peritoneal seeding.
González-Moreno S, Sugarbaker PH
Br J Surg. 2004;91(3):304.
BACKGROUND: Traditionally epithelial malignancies of the appendix with or without carcinomatosis have been treated by right hemicolectomy. Recent accumulation of a large number of patients with this disease has enabled a re-evaluation of this surgical judgement.
METHODS: Clinical data on 501 patients with epithelial malignancy of the appendix were collected prospectively. All patients had peritoneal seeding at the time of referral and were treated by cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. The main independent variable for statistical analysis was the surgical procedure used to resect the primary cancer (appendicectomy alone versus right hemicolectomy). Nineteen other clinical and pathological variables were considered as control variables. The endpoint for all analyses was survival.
RESULTS: Median follow-up after the initial diagnosis was 4 years. The rate of regional lymph node positivity was 5.0 per cent. When the incidence of lymph node metastasis was determined by histological type, it was statistically significantly higher in intestinal (66.7 per cent) than in mucinous (4.2 per cent) tumours (P<0.001). The presence of lymph node metastases had no influence on prognosis (P = 0.155). The surgical procedure (appendicectomy alone versus right hemicolectomy) had an influence on patient survival by univariate analysis (P<0.001), but not by multivariate analysis (P = 0.258).
CONCLUSION: Right hemicolectomy does not confer a survival advantage in patients with mucinous appendiceal tumours with peritoneal seeding. These data suggest that right hemicolectomy should be avoided unless metastatic involvement of the appendiceal or distal ileocolic lymph nodes is documented by biopsy, or the resection margin is inadequate.
Program in Peritoneal Surface Malignancy, The Washington Cancer Institute, Washington, DC, USA.
Right hemicolectomy for mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix: just right or too much?
Turaga KK, Pappas S, Gamblin TC
Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Apr;20(4):1063-7. Epub 2013 Mar 2.
BACKGROUND: The surgical management of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix (MA) is controversial, given its infrequent nodal metastases and its propensity for peritoneal dissemination compared to nonmucinous adenocarcinoma. We sought to identify the appropriateness of a right hemicolectomy (RH) for MA in staging and treatment of these tumors.
METHODS: We queried all patients with MA captured in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 1973 to 2007. Demographics, and tumor and therapy characteristics were extracted. Overall and disease-specific survival was compared by Cox regression analyses.
RESULTS: Of 2,101 patients with MA, the median age was 59 (range 49-72) years; 55 % were women (n = 1,151). Tumor, node, metastasis staging revealed that tumors were frequently T3 (33 %) or T4 (46 %), N0 (80 %), and M1 (46 %). Fifty-one percent (n = 666) of patients underwent an appendectomy. In patients with complete staging information who underwent RH, nodal metastases were less frequent than the nonmucinous adenocarcinoma group (odds ratio 0.63, p = 0.003). Well-differentiated tumors had a low likelihood of nodal metastases (6 % T1, 0 % T2, 7 % T3, 22 % T4). Adjusted survival for patients undergoing appendectomy was similar to those undergoing a RH (hazard ratio 0.93, p = 0.52). Median survival for both groups was similar with positive nodes (28 [appendectomy]vs. 26 months [RH], p = 0.26) or metastatic disease (52 [appendectomy]vs. 43 months [RH], p = 0.28).
CONCLUSIONS: There does not appear to be a therapeutic benefit to a RH in the setting of known node-positive or metastatic disease. Benefits of a staging operation can be individualized on the basis of the probability of nodal metastases, which is lower than nonmucinous tumors.
Division of Surgical Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA. email@example.com