Medline ® Abstract for Reference 6
of 'Cancer of the appendix and pseudomyxoma peritonei'
A retrospective analysis of 1570 appendiceal carcinoids.
Sandor A, Modlin IM
Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93(3):422.
OBJECTIVE: Information about the management and outcome of appendiceal carcinoids is sparse, because few series comprise more than 100 cases. In this study we have analyzed the epidemiology of 1570 appendiceal carcinoids, to compare outcome with other gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors.
METHODS: We evaluated 1570 appendiceal carcinoids in a series of 8305 carcinoid tumors from the SEER, the End Results Group, and the Third National Cancer Survey programs of the National Cancer Institute over the time period 1950-1991.
RESULTS: Appendiceal carcinoids comprised 18.9% of all carcinoid tumors and exhibited a marked female predominance (M/F ratio: 0.47). Age-adjusted incidence rates were 1.7-fold higher in women compared to men. Appendiceal carcinoids present earlier (average age: 42.2 yr) than other gastrointestinal carcinoids (62.9 yr) or noncarcinoid appendiceal tumors (61.9 yr). At the time of diagnosis 35.4% were nonlocalized. The overall 5-yr survival for localized lesions was 94%, for regional invasion 84.6%, and for distant metastases 33.7%. The 5-yr survival of appendiceal carcinoids (85.9%) was the highest among all types of carcinoid tumors. In 14.6% noncarcinoidtumors at other sites were also evident.
CONCLUSION: The high relative incidence of carcinoid tumors in the appendix is still poorly understood. The good overall 5-yr survival rates of appendiceal carcinoids as opposed to other carcinoids represents either a different biological behavior, earlier diagnosis, or expeditious management (appendectomy). However, the increased likelihood of coexisting neoplasms and the not uncommon presentation of metastatic disease should warrant careful evaluation and postoperative follow-up of such lesions.
Gastric Surgical Pathobiology Research Group, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8062, USA.