Medline ® Abstracts for References 29,30
of 'Cancer of the appendix and pseudomyxoma peritonei'
Hinson FL, Ambrose NS
Br J Surg. 1998;85(10):1332.
BACKGROUND: Pseudomyxoma peritonei is an unusual condition in which gelatinous fluid collections are associated with mucinous implants on the peritoneal surfaces and omentum. The pathological origin and ideal treatment of the condition are subjects of debate.
METHODS: An unrestricted Medline search over 1986-1997 was performed for pseudomyxoma peritonei.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There is increasing evidence that pseudomyxoma peritonei is a neoplastic condition which usually arises from a primary adenoma or adenocarcinoma of the appendix. Reported series include a spectrum of pathological lesions, from entirely benign ruptured mucocele to advanced carcinoma. This, and the rarity of the condition, limit the conclusions that can be drawn regarding its treatment and prognosis. Most authorities agree that a thorough surgical debulking should be made. In most cases this will be a difficult and time-consuming undertaking, possibly requiring cooperation between two or more specialists and consideration of delivering intraperitoneal adjuvant therapy during or immediately after surgery. Treatment therefore requires a planned approach with accurate preoperative assessment of the diagnosis and the extent of the condition. There is some largely anecdotal evidence in favour of intraperitoneal chemotherapy and radioisotope treatment. Ultraradical surgery, with heated intraoperative and further postoperative chemotherapy, is strongly advocated by one group but remains contentious. The majority of patients will eventually suffer recurrence. The 5-year survival rate ranges from 53 to 75 per cent, but outcomes vary widely between relatively benign and malignant subgroups.
Department of General Surgery, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK.
Pseudomyxoma peritonei of appendiceal origin. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience.
Smith JW, Kemeny N, Caldwell C, Banner P, Sigurdson E, Huvos A
BACKGROUND: Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare clinical entity in which the peritoneal surfaces and omentum are involved with diffuse gelatinous mucinous implants. It originates from ruptured mucinous tumors of the appendix or ovary.
METHODS: The authors examined the experience with 34 patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1952-1989. Of these, 17 cases were identified to be of appendiceal origin.
RESULTS: All patients underwent celiotomy and cytoreduction. The median survival time from diagnosis was 75 months. It was found that long-term survival can be achieved by operation alone. When conditions do recur, chemotherapy may be valuable.
CONCLUSIONS: Pseudomyxoma peritonei of appendiceal origin is a rare low-grade malignancy. Initial treatment consists of cytoreduction in an attempt to render the patient locally disease-free. Long-term survival can be obtained by operation alone, even if gross disease is present at the end of the procedure. Systemic chemotherapy should be reserved for patients with proven recurrence.
Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021.