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Bronchocentric granulomatosis

Author
Talmadge E King, Jr, MD
Section Editor
Kevin R Flaherty, MD, MS
Deputy Editor
Helen Hollingsworth, MD

INTRODUCTION

Bronchocentric granulomatosis is a destructive, granulomatous lesion of the bronchi and bronchioles that is generally believed to represent a nonspecific response to a variety of types of airway injury [1-3]. Approximately half of all cases are associated with asthma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and among these patients, bronchocentric granulomatosis may represent a histopathologic manifestation of fungal hypersensitivity [3-7]. (See "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis".)

The remaining cases of bronchocentric granulomatosis are usually idiopathic, although associations have been reported with a number of other diseases (table 1) [3,8-24]. Because of the lack of a clear clinical syndrome associated with bronchocentric granulomatosis, the presence of this lesion should generally be considered a nonspecific manifestation of lung injury, not an etiologic diagnosis.

An overview of bronchocentric granulomatosis will be presented here. Pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis, a different clinicopathological entity usually related to Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoma, and an approach to an adult with suspected interstitial lung disease, are discussed separately. (See "Pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis" and "Approach to the adult with interstitial lung disease: Clinical evaluation" and "Approach to the adult with interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic testing".)

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Bronchocentric granulomatosis is rare, although the exact incidence and prevalence are unknown.

ASSOCIATED DISEASES

A number of diseases have been reported in association with bronchocentric granulomatosis, although the relationship of the association is unclear. The largest association is with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Case reports have described coexistent mycobacterial and fungal infection, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's), chronic granulomatous disease, glomerulonephritis, scleritis, diabetes insipidus, red cell aplasia, pulmonary echinococcosis, bronchogenic carcinoma, and influenza A virus (table 1) [3,8-25].

           

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Literature review current through: May 2017. | This topic last updated: Mar 17, 2017.
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