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Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-5

of 'Patient education: Bedwetting in children (Beyond the Basics)'

1
 
 
Schmitt BD.. Bed-Wetting (Enuresis). In: Instructions for Pediatric Patients, Saunders, 1999. p.209.
 
no abstract available
2
TI
Alarm interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children.
AU
Glazener CM, Evans JH, Peto RE
SO
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;
 
BACKGROUND: Enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially disruptive and stressful condition which affects around 15 to 20% of five year olds, and up to 2% of young adults.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alarm interventions on nocturnal enuresis in children, and to compare alarms with other interventions.
SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group specialised trials register (searched 22 November 2004) and the reference lists of relevant articles.
SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of alarm interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children were included, except those focused solely on daytime wetting. Comparison interventions included no treatment, simple and complex behavioural methods, desmopressin, tricyclics, and miscellaneous other methods.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials, and extracted data.
MAIN RESULTS: Fifty five trials met the inclusion criteria, involving 3152 children of whom 2345 used an alarm. The quality of many trials was poor, and evidence for many comparisons was inadequate. Most alarms used audio methods. Compared to no treatment, about two thirds of children became dry during alarm use (RR for failure 0.38, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.45). Nearly half who persisted with alarm use remained dry after treatment finished, compared to almost none after no treatment (RR of failure or relapse 45/81 (55%) vs 80/81 (99%), RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.68). There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about different types of alarm, or about how alarms compare to other behavioural interventions. Relapse rates were lower when overlearning was added to alarm treatment (RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.92) or if dry bed training was used as well (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.20). Penalties for wet beds appeared to be counter-productive. Alarms using electric shocks were unacceptable to children or their parents. Although desmopressin may have a more immediate effect, alarms appear more effective by the end of a course of treatment (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.99) and there was limited evidence of greater long-term success (4/22 (18%) vs 16/24 (67%), RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.69). Evidence about the benefit of supplementing alarm treatment with desmopressin was conflicting. Alarms were better than tricyclics during treatment (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.88) and afterwards (7/12 (58%) vs 12/12 (100%), RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.94).
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Alarm interventions are an effective treatment for nocturnal bedwetting in children. Alarms appear more effective than desmopressin or tricyclics by the end of treatment, and subsequently. Overlearning (giving extra fluids at bedtime after successfully becoming dry using an alarm), dry bed training and avoiding penalties may further reduce the relapse rate. Better quality research comparing alarms with other treatments is needed, including follow-up to determine relapse rates.
AD
Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Polwarth Building, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, AB25 2ZD. c.glazener@abdn.ac.uk
PMID
3
TI
Desmopressin for nocturnal enuresis in children
AU
Glazener CM, Evans JH
SO
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;
 
AD
4
TI
Complementary and miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children.
AU
Huang T, Shu X, Huang YS, Cheuk DK
SO
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;
 
BACKGROUND: Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially disruptive and stressful condition which affects around 15% to 20% of five year olds, and up to 2% of young adults.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of complementary interventions and others such as surgery or diet on nocturnal enuresis in children, and to compare them with other interventions.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched PubMed (1950 to June 2010), EMBASE (1980 to June 2010), the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS) (1984 to June 2010), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1975 to June 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to June 2010), VIP database (1989 to June 2010), and the reference lists of relevant articles, all last searched 26 June 2010. No language restriction was used.
SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of complementary and other miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children were included except those focused solely on daytime wetting. Comparison interventions could include no treatment, placebo or sham treatment, alarms, simple behavioural treatment, desmopressin, imipramine and miscellaneous other drugs and interventions.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials, and extracted data.
MAIN RESULTS: In 24 randomised controlled trials, 2334 children were studied, of whom 1283 received a complementary intervention. The quality of the trials was poor: 5 trials were quasi-randomised, 5 showed differences at baseline and 17 lacked follow up data.The outcome was better after hypnosis than imipramine in one trial (relative risk (RR) for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.78). Psychotherapy appeared to be better in terms of fewer children failing or relapsing than both alarm (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.85) and rewards (RR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09 to 0.90) but this depended on data from only one trial. Medicinal herbs had better results than desmopressin in one trial (RR for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.35, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.85). Acupuncture had better results than sham control acupuncture (RR for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.67, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.94) in a further trial. Active chiropractic adjustment had better results than sham adjustment (RR for failure to improve 0.76, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.95). However, each of these findings came from small single trials, and must be verified in further trials. The findings for diet and faradization were unreliable, and there were no trials including homeopathy or surgery.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There was weak evidence to support the use of hypnosis, psychotherapy, acupuncture, chiropractic and medicinal herbs but it was provided in each case by single small trials, some of dubious methodological rigour. Robust randomised trials are required with efficacy, cost-effectiveness and adverse effects clearly reported.
AD
Branch of Cooperative Research Center on Evidence-based Medicine of Ministry of Education, Department of Preventive Medicine, Jinggangshan University, 23 Jifu Road, Ji'an, Jiangxi, China, 343000.
PMID
5
TI
Simple behavioural interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children.
AU
Caldwell PH, Nankivell G, Sureshkumar P
SO
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;
 
BACKGROUND: Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially disruptive and stressful condition which affects around 15% to 20% of five year olds and up to 2% of adults. Although there is a high rate of spontaneous remission, the social, emotional and psychological costs can be great. Behavioural interventions for treating bedwetting are defined as interventions that require a behaviour or action by the child which promotes night dryness and includes strategies which reward that behaviour. Behavioural interventions are further divided into:(a) simple behavioural interventions - behaviours or actions that can be achieved by the child without great effort; and(b) complex behavioural interventions - multiple behavioural interventions which require greater effort by the child and parents to achieve, including enuresis alarm therapy.This review focuses on simple behavioural interventions.Simple behavioural interventions are often used as a first attempt to improve nocturnal enuresis and include reward systems such as star charts given for dry nights, lifting or waking the children at night to urinate, retention control training to enlarge bladder capacity (bladder training) and fluid restriction. Other treatments such as medications, complementary and miscellaneous interventions such as acupuncture, complex behavioural interventions and enuresis alarm therapy are considered elsewhere.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of simple behavioural interventions in children with nocturnal enuresis.The following comparisons were made:1. simple behavioural interventions versus no active treatment;2. any single type of simple behavioural intervention versus another behavioural method (another simple behavioural intervention, enuresis alarm therapy or complex behavioural interventions);3. simple behavioural interventions versus drug treatment alone (including placebo drugs) or drug treatment in combination with other interventions.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Trials Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 15 December 2011). The reference lists of relevant articles were also searched.
SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of simple behavioural interventions for treating nocturnal enuresis in children up to the age of 16. Studies which included children with daytime urinary incontinence or children with organic conditions were also included in this review if the focus of the study was on nocturnal enuresis. Trials focused solely on daytime wetting and trials of adults with nocturnal enuresis were excluded.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials and extracted data. Differences between reviewers were settled by discussion with a third reviewer.
MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen trials met the inclusion criteria, involving 1643 children of whom 865 received a simple behavioural intervention. Within each comparison, outcomes were mostly addressed by single trials, precluding meta-analysis. The only exception was bladder training versus enuresis alarm therapy which included two studies and demonstrated that alarm therapy was superior to bladder training.In single small trials, rewards, lifting and waking and bladder training were each associated with significantly fewer wet nights, higher full response rates and lower relapse rates compared to controls. Simple behavioural interventions appeared to be less effective when compared with other known effective interventions (such as enuresis alarm therapy and drug therapies with imipramine and amitriptyline). However, the effect was not sustained at follow-up after completion of treatment for the drug therapies. Based on one small trial, cognitive therapy also appeared to be more effective than rewards. When one simple behavioural therapy was compared with another, there did not appear to be one therapy that was more effective than another.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Simple behavioural methods may be superior to no active treatment but appear to be inferior to enuresis alarm therapy and some drug therapy (such as imipramine and amitriptyline). Simple behavioural therapies could be tried as first line treatment before considering enuresis alarm therapy or drug therapy, which may be more demanding and have adverse effects, although evidence supporting their efficacy is lacking.
AD
Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Westmead,Australia. Patrinac@chw.edu.au.
PMID