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Medline ® Abstracts for References 18,24,25,27-29

of 'Barrett's esophagus: Surveillance and management'

18
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Incidence of adenocarcinoma among patients with Barrett's esophagus.
AU
Hvid-Jensen F, Pedersen L, Drewes AM, Sørensen HT, Funch-Jensen P
SO
N Engl J Med. 2011;365(15):1375.
 
BACKGROUND: Accurate population-based data are needed on the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia among patients with Barrett's esophagus.
METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, population-based, cohort study involving all patients with Barrett's esophagus in Denmark during the period from 1992 through 2009, using data from the Danish Pathology Registry and the Danish Cancer Registry. We determined the incidence rates (numbers of cases per 1000 person-years) of adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia. As a measure of relative risk, standardized incidence ratios were calculated with the use of national cancer rates in Denmark during the study period.
RESULTS: We identified 11,028 patients with Barrett's esophagus and analyzed their data for a median of 5.2 years. Within the first year after the index endoscopy, 131 new cases of adenocarcinoma were diagnosed. During subsequent years, 66 new adenocarcinomas were detected, yielding an incidence rate for adenocarcinoma of 1.2 cases per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 1.5). As compared with the risk in the general population, the relative risk of adenocarcinoma among patients with Barrett's esophagus was 11.3 (95% CI, 8.8 to 14.4). The annual risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma was 0.12% (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.15). Detection of low-grade dysplasia on the index endoscopy was associated with an incidence rate for adenocarcinoma of 5.1 cases per 1000 person-years. In contrast, the incidence rate among patients without dysplasia was 1.0 case per 1000 person-years. Risk estimates for patients with high-grade dysplasia were slightly higher.
CONCLUSIONS: Barrett's esophagus is a strong risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the absolute annual risk, 0.12%, is much lower than the assumed risk of 0.5%, which is the basis for current surveillance guidelines. Data from the current study call into question the rationale for ongoing surveillance in patients who have Barrett's esophagus without dysplasia. (Funded by the Clinical Institute, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.).
AD
Department of Surgical Gastroenterology L, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
PMID
24
TI
The incidence of esophageal cancer and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
AU
Yousef F, Cardwell C, Cantwell MM, Galway K, Johnston BT, Murray L
SO
Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168(3):237. Epub 2008 Jun 12.
 
Barrett's esophagus is a well-recognized precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Surveillance of Barrett's esophagus patients is recommended to detect high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or early cancer. Because of wide variation in the published cancer incidence in Barrett's esophagus, the authors undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer and HGD incidence in Barrett's esophagus. Ovid Medline (Ovid Technologies, Inc., New York, New York) and EMBASE (Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) databases were searched for papers published between 1950 and 2006 that reported the cancer/HGD risk in Barrett's esophagus. Where possible, early incident cancers/HGD were excluded, as were patients with HGD at baseline. Forty-seven studies were included in the main analysis, and the pooled estimate for cancer incidence in Barrett's esophagus was 6.1/1,000 person-years, 5.3/1,000 person-years when early incident cancers were excluded, and 4.1/1,000 person-years when both early incident cancer and HGD at baseline were excluded. Corresponding figures for combined HGD/cancer incidence were 10.0 person-years, 9.3 person-years, and 9.1/1,000 person-years. Compared with women, men progressed to cancer at twice the rate. Cancer or HGD/cancer incidences werelower when only high-quality studies were analyzed (3.9/1,000 person-years and 7.7/1,000 person-years, respectively). The pooled estimates of cancer and HGD incidence were low, suggesting that the cost-effectiveness of surveillance is questionable unless it can be targeted to those with the highest cancer risk.
AD
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research Group, Centre for Clinical and Population Sciences, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. Fyousef01@qub.ac.uk
PMID
25
TI
Risk of malignant progression in patients with Barrett's oesophagus: a Dutch nationwide cohort study.
AU
de Jonge PJ, van Blankenstein M, Looman CW, Casparie MK, Meijer GA, Kuipers EJ
SO
Gut. 2010;59(8):1030.
 
BACKGROUND: Reported incidence rates of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) vary widely. As the effectiveness of BO surveillance is crucially dependent on this rate, its clarification is essential.
METHODS: To estimate the rate of malignant progression in patients with BO, all patients with a first diagnosis of BO with no dysplasia (ND) or low-grade dysplasia (LGD) between 1991 and 2006 were identified in the Dutch nationwide registry of histopathology (PALGA). Follow-up data were evaluated up to November 2007.
RESULTS: 42 207 patients with BO were included; 4132 (8%) of them had LGD. Re-evaluation endoscopies at least 6 months after initial diagnosis were performed in 16 365 patients (39%), who were significantly younger than those not re-examined (58+/-13 vs 63+/-16 years, p<0.001). These patients were followed-up for a total of 78 131 person-years, during which 666 (4%) high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/OACs occurred, affecting 4% of the surveillance patient population (mean age: 69+/-12 years, 76% male). After excluding HGD/OAC cases detected within 1 year after BO diagnosis (n=212, 32%), incidence rates per 1000 person-years were 4.3 (95% CI 3.4 to 5.5) for OAC and 5.8 (95% CI 4.6 to 7.0) for HGD/OAC combined. Risk factors for HGD/OAC were increased age (eg,>75 years HR 12; 95% CI 8.0 to 18), male sex (2.01; 1.68 to 2.60) and presence of LGD at baseline (1.91; 1.53 to 2.40).
CONCLUSION: In this largest reported cohort of unselected patients with BO, the annual risk of OAC was 0.4%. Male sex, older age and LGD at diagnosis are independent predictors of malignant progression, and should enable an improved risk assessment in BO.
AD
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands. p.dejonge@erasmusmc.nl
PMID
27
TI
Predictors for neoplastic progression in patients with Barrett's Esophagus: a prospective cohort study.
AU
Sikkema M, Looman CW, Steyerberg EW, Kerkhof M, Kastelein F, van Dekken H, van Vuuren AJ, Bode WA, van der Valk H, Ouwendijk RJ, Giard R, Lesterhuis W, Heinhuis R, Klinkenberg EC, Meijer GA, ter Borg F, Arends JW, Kolkman JJ, van Baarlen J, de Vries RA, Mulder AH, van Tilburg AJ, Offerhaus GJ, ten Kate FJ, Kusters JG, Kuipers EJ, Siersema PD
SO
Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(7):1231.
 
OBJECTIVES: Patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) have an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). As the absolute risk remains low, there is a need for predictors of neoplastic progression to tailor more individualized surveillance programs. The aim of this study was to identify such predictors of progression to high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and EAC in patients with BE after 4 years of surveillance and to develop a prediction model based on these factors.
METHODS: We included 713 patients with BE (≥2 cm) with no dysplasia (ND) or low-grade dysplasia (LGD) in a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Data on age, gender, body mass index (BMI), reflux symptoms, tobacco and alcohol use, medication use, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy findings, and histology were prospectively collected. As part of this study, patients with ND underwent surveillance every 2 years, whereas those with LGDwere followed on a yearly basis. Log linear regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with the development of HGD or EAC during surveillance.
RESULTS: After 4 years of follow-up, 26/713 (3.4%) patients developed HGD or EAC, with the remaining 687 patients remaining stable with ND or LGD. Multivariable analysis showed that a known duration of BE of≥10 years (risk ratio (RR) 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-7.8), length of BE (RR 1.11 per cm increase in length; 95% CI 1.01-1.2), esophagitis (RR 3.5; 95% CI 1.3-9.5), and LGD (RR 9.7; 95% CI 4.4-21.5) were significant predictors of progression to HGD or EAC. In a prediction model, we found that the annual risk of developing HGD or EAC in BE varied between 0.3% and up to 40%. Patients with ND and no other risk factors had the lowest risk of developing HGD or EAC (<1%), whereas those with LGD and at least one other risk factor had the highest risk of neoplastic progression (18-40%).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with BE, the risk of developing HGD or EAC is predominantly determined by the presence of LGD, a known duration of BE of≥10 years, longer length of BE, and presence of esophagitis. One or combinations of these risk factors are able to identify patients with a low or high risk of neoplastic progression and could therefore be used to individualize surveillance intervals in BE.
AD
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. m.sikkema@umcutrecht.nl
PMID
28
TI
Risk stratification of patients with barrett's esophagus and low-grade dysplasia or indefinite for dysplasia.
AU
Thota PN, Lee HJ, Goldblum JR, Liu X, Sanaka MR, Gohel T, Kanadiya M, Lopez R
SO
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Mar;13(3):459-465.e1. Epub 2014 Aug 4.
 
BACKGROUND&AIMS: In patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), progressing at variable rates. Patients at higher risk for progression could benefit from intervention. We assessed rates of progression of LGD and indefinite for dysplasia (IND) and risk factors for progression to high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and EAC.
METHODS: We analyzed data from Cleveland Clinic Barrett's Registry on patients with BE and LGD or IND at least 1 year of follow-up from January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2012. Prevalent cases were those diagnosed at or within 1 year of the first endoscopy, and the rest were incident cases.
RESULTS: Among 299 patients with BE and LGD or IND, there were 32 cases of HGD and 10 cases of EAC during a follow-up period of 1577.4 patient-years. The annual incidence rates were 2.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%-3.3%) for HGD, 0.6% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.2%) for EAC, and 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.6%) for HGD or EAC. The rates were higher in men than in women with BE and LGD or IND. Prevalent cases were 3-fold more likely to progress than incident cases. Multifocality and nodules were associated with higher risk of progression to HGD or EAC. None of the patients with IND at index biopsy developed EAC. For every 5-year increase in age, chance of regression increased by 7% (P = .04). Also, for every 1-cm increase in BE length, probability of regression decreased by 6% (P = .016). LGD at index biopsy was associated with 56% lower chance of regression compared with IND (P<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of a database analysis of patients with BE, prevalent LGD, male sex, multifocality, and nodules were associated with higher risk for progression to EAC. Older age at LGD diagnosis, IND at index biopsy, and shorter BE length were associated with regression. These findings help in risk stratification of patients with BE and LGD or IND.
AD
Center of Excellence for Barrett's Esophagus, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address: thotap@ccf.org.
PMID
29
TI
Length of Barrett's oesophagus and cancer risk: implications from a large sample of patients with early oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
AU
Pohl H, Pech O, Arash H, Stolte M, Manner H, May A, Kraywinkel K, Sonnenberg A, Ell C
SO
Gut. 2016 Feb;65(2):196-201. Epub 2015 Jun 25.
 
OBJECTIVE: Although it is well understood that the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma increases with Barrett length, transition risks for cancer associated with different Barrett lengths are unknown. We aimed to estimate annual cancer transition rates for patients with long-segment (≥3 cm), short-segment (≥1 to<3 cm) and ultra-short-segment (<1 cm) Barrett's oesophagus.
DESIGN: We used three data sources to estimate the annual cancer transition rates for each Barrett length category: (1) the distribution of long, short and ultra-short Barrett's oesophagus among a large German cohort with newly diagnosed T1 oesophageal adenocarcinoma; (2) population-based German incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma; and (3) published estimates of the population prevalence of Barrett's oesophagus for each Barrett length category.
RESULTS: Among 1017 patients with newly diagnosed T1 oesophageal adenocarcinoma, 573 (56%) had long-segment, 240 (24%) short-segment and 204 (20%) ultra-short-segment Barrett's oesophagus. The base-case estimates for the prevalence of Barrett's oesophagus among the general population were 1.5%, 5% and 14%, respectively. The annual cancer transition rates for patients with long, short and ultra-short Barrett's oesophagus were 0.22%, 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively. To detect one cancer, 450 patients with long-segment Barrett's oesophagus would need to undergo annual surveillance endoscopy; in short segment and ultra-short segment, the corresponding numbers of patients would be 3440 and 12 364. Similar results were obtained when applying US incidence data.
CONCLUSIONS: The large number of patients, who need to undergo endoscopic surveillance to detect one cancer, raises questions about the value of surveillance endoscopy in patients with short segment or ultra-short segment of Barrett's oesophagus.
AD
Department of Gastroenterology, VA Medical Center, White River Junction, Vermont, USA Department of Gastroenterology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA.
PMID