Balanoposthitis in children: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment
- Matthew Tews, DO
Matthew Tews, DO
- Professor of Emergency Medicine
- Medical College of Georgia
- Jonathan I Singer, MD
Jonathan I Singer, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Surgical Emergencies
- Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics
- Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Gary R Fleisher, MD
Gary R Fleisher, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Section Editor — Pediatric Signs and Symptoms
- Egan Family Foundation Professor
- Harvard Medical School
- Laurence S Baskin, MD, FAAP
Laurence S Baskin, MD, FAAP
- Section Editor — Pediatric Urology
- Frank Hinman, Jr., MD, Distinguished Professorship in Pediatric Urology
- Chief Pediatric Urology
- Professor of Urology and Pediatrics
- UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital
- Deputy Editor
- James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
- Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
- Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
- Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
- University of Connecticut School of Medicine
This topic will address the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of balanoposthitis in children. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of this condition and normal development of the uncircumcised penis are discussed separately. (See "Balanoposthitis in children: Epidemiology and pathogenesis" and "Care of the uncircumcised penis in infants and children".)
History — Common symptoms in patients with balanoposthitis include genital itching, genital irritation and pain, penile discharge, groin rash, and dysuria [1-3]. In infants, penile inflammation may be the cause of excessive crying.
In addition to the above, uncircumcised prepubertal boys with balanoposthitis may demonstrate relative phimosis, that is, inability to retract the foreskin to the extent possible prior to the illness.
The patient or parents may note scarring or changed appearance when balanoposthitis is longstanding.
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- CLINICAL FEATURES
- Physical examination
- Laboratory testing
- Pathologic diagnosis
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
- Relief of urinary obstruction
- General treatment
- Irritant nonspecific balanoposthitis
- Irritant contact balanoposthitis
- Fixed drug eruptions
- Infectious balanoposthitis
- - Candidal infection
- - Bacterial infection
- - Viral balanoposthitis
- - Protozoan balanoposthitis
- - Persistent infections
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS