Medline ® Abstracts for References 5-8

of 'Bacterial vaginosis'

5
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The global epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review.
AU
Kenyon C, Colebunders R, Crucitti T
SO
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Dec;209(6):505-23. Epub 2013 May 6.
 
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) enhances the acquisition and transmission of a range of sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus. This has made it more important to uncover the reasons why some populations have very high BV prevalences and others not. This systematic review describes the global epidemiology of BV. It summarizes data from peer-reviewed publications detailing the population prevalence of BV as diagnosed by a standardized and reproducible methodology-Nugent scoring system. BV variations between countries, and between ethnic groups within countries, are described. We evaluated 1692 English- and non-English-language articles describing the prevalence of BV using MEDLINE and the Web of Science databases. A total of 86 articles met our inclusion criteria. BV prevalences were found to vary considerably between ethnic groups in North America, South America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. Although BV prevalence is, in general, highest in parts of Africa and lowest in much of Asia and Europe, some populations in Africa have very low BV prevalences and some in Asia and Europe have high rates.
AD
HIV/STD Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address: chriskenyon0@gmail.com.
PMID
6
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The microbiology of bacterial vaginosis.
AU
Hill GB
SO
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;169(2 Pt 2):450.
 
A group of microorganisms are present concurrently in high concentrations in the vaginas of women with bacterial vaginosis. The major members of the group are Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic gram-negative rods belonging to the genera Prevotella, Porphyromonas and Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus species, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and often Mobiluncus species. Facultative species of Lactobacillus are present in lower concentrations and are less prevalent in bacterial vaginosis than in women with a normal vaginal examination. The exact microbe(s) responsible for bacterial vaginosis is unknown whether among the organisms listed above or an unknown agent. The high concentrations of anaerobic gram-negative rods, peptostreptococci, and other opportunistic pathogens in the lower genital tract place women with bacterial vaginosis at increased risk for genital infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
AD
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.
PMID
7
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Molecular analysis of the diversity of vaginal microbiota associated with bacterial vaginosis.
AU
Ling Z, Kong J, Liu F, Zhu H, Chen X, Wang Y, Li L, Nelson KE, Xia Y, Xiang C
SO
BMC Genomics. 2010;11:488.
 
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota that affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including pre-term birth and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. However, little is known about the overall structure and composition of vaginal microbial communities; most of the earlier studies focused on predominant vaginal bacteria in the process of BV. In the present study, the diversity and richness of vaginal microbiota in 50 BV positive and 50 healthy women from China were investigated using culture-independent PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded 454 pyrosequencing methods, and validated by quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Our data demonstrated that there was a profound shift in the absolute and relative abundances of bacterial species present in the vagina when comparing populations associated with healthy and diseased conditions. In spite of significant interpersonal variations, the diversity of vaginal microbiota in the two groups could be clearly divided into two clusters. A total of 246,359 high quality pyrosequencing reads wasobtained for evaluating bacterial diversity and 24,298 unique sequences represented all phylotypes. The most predominant phyla of bacteria identified in the vagina belonged to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. The higher number of phylotypes in BV positive women over healthy is consistent with the results of previous studies and a large number of low-abundance taxa which were missed in previous studies were revealed. Although no single bacterium could be identified as a specific marker for healthy over diseased conditions, three phyla - Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria, and eight genera including Gardnerella, Atopobium, Megasphaera, Eggerthella, Aerococcus, Leptotrichia/Sneathia, Prevotella and Papillibacter were strongly associated with BV (p<0.05). These genera are potentially excellent markers and could be used as targets for clinical BV diagnosis by molecular approaches.
CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here have clearly profiled the overall structure of vaginal communities and clearly demonstrated that BV is associated with a dramatic increase in the taxonomic richness and diversity of vaginal microbiota. The study also provides the most comprehensive picture of the vaginal community structure and the bacterial ecosystem, and significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of BV.
AD
State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, China.
PMID
8
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Prevalence of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in normal women and women with bacterial vaginosis.
AU
Eschenbach DA, Davick PR, Williams BL, Klebanoff SJ, Young-Smith K, Critchlow CM, Holmes KK
SO
J Clin Microbiol. 1989;27(2):251.
 
A predominance of Lactobacillus species in the vaginal flora is considered normal. In women with bacterial vaginosis, the prevalence and concentrations of intravaginal Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobes are increased, whereas the prevalence of intravaginal Lactobacillus species is decreased. Because some lactobacilli are known to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can be toxic to organisms that produce little or no H2O2-scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase), we postulated that an absence of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus species could allow an overgrowth of catalase-negative organisms, such as those found among women with bacterial vaginosis. In this study, H2O2-producing facultative Lactobacillus species were found in the vaginas of 27 (96%) of 28 normal women and 4 (6%) of 67 women with bacterial vaginosis (P less than 0.001). Anaerobic Lactobacillus species (which do not produce hydrogen peroxide) were isolated from 24 (36%) of 67 women with bacterial vaginosis and 1 (4%) of 28 normal women (P less than 0.001). The production of H2O2 by Lactobacillus species may represent a nonspecific antimicrobial defense mechanism of the normal vaginal ecosystem.
AD
Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.
PMID