Medline ® Abstracts for References 44-46
of 'Bacterial vaginosis'
Vulvovaginal symptoms in women with bacterial vaginosis.
Klebanoff MA, Schwebke JR, Zhang J, Nansel TR, Yu KF, Andrews WW
Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104(2):267.
OBJECTIVE: A substantial, but highly variable, percentage of women with bacterial vaginosis are said to be asymptomatic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of symptoms among women with bacterial vaginosis compared with women without bacterial vaginosis by direct, explicit, and detailed questioning of these women.
METHODS: Women presenting for a routine health care visit at 12 health department clinics in Birmingham, Alabama, were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of vaginal flora. At the first visit, they underwent a pelvic examination, lower genital tract microbiological evaluation, and an interview that included detailed questions regarding lower genital tract symptoms. The prevalence of symptoms among women with and without bacterial vaginosis (Gram stain score 7 or higher) was compared.
RESULTS: Among 2,888 women without gonorrhea, Chlamydia, or trichomonas, 75% of women with and 82% of women without bacterial vaginosis never noted any vaginal odor in the past 6 months (P<.001). The corresponding values were 63% and 65% for never noting vaginal "wetness" (P =.02); 58% and 57% for vaginal discharge (P =.65); 91% and 86% for irritation (P =.004); 88% and 85% for itching (P =.64); and 96% and 94% for dysuria (P =.002), respectively. Cumulatively, 58% of women with bacterial vaginosis noted odor, discharge, and/or wetness in the past 6 months compared with 57% of women without bacterial vaginosis (P =.70).
CONCLUSION: The 2 classic symptoms of bacterial vaginosis discharge and odor are each reported by a minority of women with bacterial vaginosis and are only slightly more prevalent than among women without bacterial vaginosis.
Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. email@example.com
Bacterial vaginosis: diagnostic and pathogenetic findings during topical clindamycin therapy.
Livengood CH 3rd, Thomason JL, Hill GB
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Aug;163(2):515-20.
We examined subjective and objective correlates among 67 women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis before and after treatment with intravaginal clindamycin or placebo. We found no preponderance of any sexual practices among these patients. Nine patients (13.4%) had had hysterectomy. Whereas odor and discharge were the most common symptoms, 30 patients (44.8%) also complained of vulvovaginal irritation. Symptoms correlated poorly with objective therapeutic outcome. On examination the diagnosis would have been missed in seven patients (10.4%) if the clinician relied on presence of an abnormal vaginal discharge to suggest bacterial vaginosis. Vaginal pH greater than 4.5 was found immediately after curative therapy in 59.6% of patients. Mobiluncus spp. morphotypes were 99.0% specific and 52.1% sensitive and proline aminopeptidase activity in vaginal fluid was 84.4% sensitive and 70.2% specific for diagnosis. Our Gram stain criteria yielded no false-negative results, 6.1% false-positive, and frequent indeterminate results after therapy. We found little evidence for sexual transmission of bacterial vaginosis. Recurrence after effective therapy was not predicted by vaginal pH elevation, positive or indeterminate Gram stain result, or positive proline aminopeptidase test.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.
Mixed vaginitis-more than coinfection and with therapeutic implications.
Sobel JD, Subramanian C, Foxman B, Fairfax M, Gygax SE
Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2013;15(2):104.
Mixed vaginitis is due to the simultaneous presence of at least two vaginal pathogens, both contributing to an abnormal vaginal milieu and, hence, symptoms and signs of vaginitis. In mixed vaginitis, both pathogens require specific therapy for complete eradication of concurrent manifestations. In coinfection, although two pathogens are identified, a potential pathogen may be present but may not be a cause of existing vaginal symptoms. Although data remain sparse, mixed vaginitis occurs rarely (<5 %). By contrast, pathogen coinfection occurs frequently in women with vaginitis. Approximately 20 %-30 % of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are coinfected with Candida species. Coexistence of BV pathogens and T. vaginalis is even more common, with coinfection rates of 60 %-80 %. Both coinfection and mixed vaginitis have significant clinical and therapeutic implications and are worthy of further investigation.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA, Jsobel@med.wayne.edu.