Medline ® Abstracts for References 44-46
of 'Bacterial vaginosis'
Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015.
Workowski KA, Bolan GA
MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64(RR-03):1.
These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30-May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR-12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs.
Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of bacterial vaginosis.
Eschenbach DA, Hillier S, Critchlow C, Stevens C, DeRouen T, Holmes KK
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;158(4):819.
Among 640 randomly selected women who were attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and did not have trichomoniasis, 33% had bacterial vaginosis as defined by a composite of four clinical criteria: (1) Vaginal discharge was homogeneous; (2) vaginal discharge had a pH greater than or equal to 4.7; (3) vaginal discharge had an amine-like odor when mixed with 10% potassium hydroxide; (4) vaginal discharge contained clue cells representing greater than or equal to 20% of vaginal epithelial cells. Previously published Gram stain criteria for bacterial vaginosis correlated better than results of semiquantitative cultures for Gardnerella vaginalis with presence or absence of clue cells and with composite clinical criteria. Of 293 women with bacterial vaginosis by Gram stain criteria, 65% had symptoms of increased vaginal discharge and/or vaginal malodor, while 74% had signs of characteristic homogeneous vaginal discharge or amine-like odor. Elevated vaginal pH was the least specific and amine-like odor the least sensitive sign of bacterial vaginosis. Gram stain criteria for bacterial vaginosis were not associated with the concentrations of endocervical or vaginal inflammatory cells but were significantly associated with a clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease. After adjusting for coinfection, sexual behavior, and other variables, bacterial vaginosis remained associated with adnexal tenderness (odds ratio =9.2, p = 0.04). Bacterial vaginosis, previously implicated as a risk factor for obstetric infections, may be a risk factor for pelvic inflammatory disease.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.
Predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of lower genital tract infection in women.
Landers DV, Wiesenfeld HC, Heine RP, Krohn MA, Hillier SL
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190(4):1004.
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that diagnostic approaches to lower genital tract infections are inaccurate and proposed this study to evaluate typical approaches.
STUDY DESIGN: Clinical diagnoses were made with symptoms, direct observation, wet mount, vaginal pH, and amines in 598 women with genital complaints. Laboratory testing for N gonorrhoeae, yeast, T vaginalis, C trachomatis, and bacterial vaginosis by Gram stain.
RESULTS: The most frequent symptoms were vaginal discharge (64%), change in discharge (53%), malodor (48%), and pruritus (32%). The infection rates were 46% bacterial vaginosis, 29% yeast, 12% trichomoniasis, 11% chlamydia or gonorrhea; 21% of the patients had no infection. The symptoms did not predict laboratory diagnosis. Clinical signs and symptoms with office-based tests and microscopy improved the accuracy of diagnoses. Amsel's clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was the most sensitive at 92%. The sensitivity of wet mount diagnosis of trichomoniasis was 62%, of yeast by microscopy was 22%, and of mucopus for theprediction of gonorrhea and/or chlamydia was 30%.
CONCLUSION: Symptoms alone should not be used to direct treatment in instances in which resources permit more complete evaluation with office-based testing that includes microscopy. Treatment failures or diagnostic uncertainty should prompt specific laboratory testing.
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh and Magee-Women's Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. email@example.com