Medline ® Abstracts for References 40-43
of 'Bacterial vaginosis'
Personal hygienic behaviors and bacterial vaginosis.
Klebanoff MA, Nansel TR, Brotman RM, Zhang J, Yu KF, Schwebke JR, Andrews WW
Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37(2):94.
BACKGROUND: Vaginal douching is consistently associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), but whether it is a cause or result of BV remains unknown. The association between BV and other feminine hygienic behaviors is less studied; if BV symptoms caused behavior change then all hygiene behaviors might be more common among women with BV. Lack of association between nondouching hygiene behavior and BV would argue against reverse causation.
METHODS: In the Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora 3620 women had 13,517 visits where BV (Nugent score) was assessed. Associations between hygienic behavior and BV were assessed by Poisson regression.
RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic and sexual behavior factors, neither type of underwear (nylon vs. cotton prevalence ratio (PR) 1.05, 95% CI: 0.97-1.13), menstrual protection (tampons vs. pads; PR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.95-1.12; pads and tampons vs. pads 1.00, 95% CI: 0.92-1.07), use of pads or panty liners when not menstruating (PR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.95-1.05), nor weekly or greater use of hygiene spray (PR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94-1.09), powder (PR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.96-1.07) or towlettes (PR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94-1.13) were strongly associated with BV. PR for daily versus less than daily bathing and showering were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.12) and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00-1.09). Douching remained associated with BV (PR for weekly or greater vs. never 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09-1.26) and was not substantially impacted by adjustment for other hygienic behavior.
CONCLUSIONS: Douching, but not other feminine hygiene behaviors, is significantly associated with BV, providing additional evidence that douching may be causally associated with BV and is not simply a response to BV symptoms.
Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Gene polymorphisms of Toll-like and related recognition receptors in relation to the vaginal carriage of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae.
Verstraelen H, Verhelst R, Nuytinck L, Roelens K, De Meester E, De Vos D, Van Thielen M, Rossau R, Delva W, De Backer E, Vaneechoutte M, Temmerman M
J Reprod Immunol. 2009;79(2):163.
Host genetic factors have previously been found to act as determinants of differential susceptibility to major infectious diseases. It is less clear whether such polymorphisms may also impose on pathogen recognition in mucosal overgrowth conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, an anaerobic overgrowth condition characterised by the presence of a vaginal biofilm consisting of the Gram-positive anaerobes Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae. We selected 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms pertaining to 9 genes involved with Toll-like receptor-mediated pathogen recognition and/or regulation (LBP, CD14, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, MD2, CARD15 and SIGIRR) and assessed in a nested case-control study their putative association with bacterial vaginosis, as diagnosed by Gram staining, and with the vaginal carriage of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis, as determined by species-specific PCR, among 144 pregnant women. Carriage of G. vaginalis during early pregnancy was associated with the -1155A>G substitution in the promoter region of the MD2 gene (p=0.041). The presence of A. vaginae during the first half of the pregnancy was significantly associated with the CD14 intron 2 1342G>T (p=0.039), the TLR1 exon 4 743A>G (p=0.038), and the CARD15 exon 4 14772A>T (p=0.012) polymorphisms, and marginally significantly associated with the LBP exon13 26842C>T (p=0.056), the CD14 promoter -260C>T (p=0.052), and the TLR1 promoter -7202A>G (p=0.062) polymorphisms. However, no association between gene polymorphisms and bacterial vaginosis as such could be documented. Our data suggest that some degree of genetic susceptibility involving pathogen recognition may occur with the key bacterial vaginosis organism, A. vaginae.
Department of Obstetrics&Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine&Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Hans.Verstraelen@UGent.be
Recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is significantly associated with posttreatment sexual activities and hormonal contraceptive use.
Bradshaw CS, Vodstrcil LA, Hocking JS, Law M, Pirotta M, Garland SM, De Guingand D, Morton AN, Fairley CK
Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(6):777. Epub 2012 Dec 12.
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) recurrence posttreatment is common. Our aim was to determine if behaviors were associated with BV recurrence in women in a randomized controlled trial (RCT).
METHODS: Symptomatic 18- to 50-year-old females with BV (≥3 Amsel criteria and Nugent score [NS]= 4-10) were enrolled in a 3-arm randomized double-blind RCT Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, in 2009-2010. All 450 participants received oral metronidazole (7 days) and were equally randomized to vaginal clindamycin, lactobacillus-vaginal probiotic or vaginal placebo. At 1, 2, 3, and 6 months, participants self-collected vaginal smears and completed questionnaires. Primary endpoint was NS = 7-10. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of BV recurrence associated with baseline and longitudinal characteristics.
RESULTS: Four hundred four (90%) women with postrandomization data contributed to analyses. Cumulative 6-month BV recurrence was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24%-33%) and not associated with treatment. After stratifying for treatment and adjusting for age and sex frequency, recurrence was associated with having the same pre-/posttreatment sexual partner (adjusted HR [AHR]= 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0), inconsistent condom use (AHR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.3), and being non-Australian (AHR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1), and halved with use of an estrogen-containing contraceptive (AHR = 0.5; 95% CI, .3-.8).
CONCLUSIONS: Risk of BV recurrence was increased with the same pre-/posttreatment sexual partner and inconsistent condom use, and halved with use of estrogen-containing contraceptives. Behavioral and contraceptive practices may modify the effectiveness of BV treatment.
CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: ACTRN12607000350426.
Melbourne School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Australia. email@example.com
Nonspecific vaginitis. Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations.
Amsel R, Totten PA, Spiegel CA, Chen KC, Eschenbach D, Holmes KK
Am J Med. 1983;74(1):14.
Numerous previous studies of nonspecific vaginitis have yielded contradictory results regarding its cause and clinical manifestations, due to a lack of uniform case definition and laboratory methods. We studied 397 consecutive unselected female university students and applied sets of well defined criteria to distinguish nonspecific vaginitis from other forms of vaginitis and from normal findings. Using such criteria, we diagnosed nonspecific vaginitis in up to 25 percent of our study population; asymptomatic disease was recognized in more than 50 percent of those with nonspecific vaginitis. A clinical diagnosis of nonspecific vaginitis, based on simple office procedures, was correlated with both the presence and the concentration of Gardnerella vaginalis (Hemophilus vaginalis) in vaginal discharge, and with characteristic biochemical findings in vaginal discharge. Nonspecific vaginitis was also correlated with a history of sexual activity, a history of previous trichomoniasis, current use of nonbarrier contraceptive methods, and, particularly, use of an intrauterine device. G. vaginalis was isolated from 51.3 percent of the total population using a highly selective medium that detected the organism in lower concentration in vaginal discharge than did previously used media. Practical diagnostic criteria for standard clinical use are proposed. Application of such criteria should assist in clinical management of nonspecific vaginitis and in further study of the microbiologic and biochemical correlates and the pathogenesis of this mild but quite prevalent disease.