Medline ® Abstracts for References 29-31
of 'Bacterial vaginosis'
Variability of bacterial vaginosis over 6- to 12-month intervals.
Ness RB, Kip KE, Soper DE, Stamm CA, Rice P, Richter HE
Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33(6):381.
OBJECTIVES: To examine variability in bacterial vaginosis (BV) over 6- to 12-month intervals.
STUDY DESIGN: One thousand one hundred ninety-three women were followed for a median of 3 years with serial vaginal swab Gram stains for BV. Discrete time hazard models were fit to identify independent risk factors for BV.
RESULTS: Women with BV at study entry were categorized as having normal flora at the next visit 20% of the time, and women with normal flora at study entry were categorized as having BV at the next visit 20% of the time. Among women with initially normal flora, factors associated with BV were black race, lower education, a history of BV, a history of chlamydial/gonococcal cervicitis, and lack of monogamy.
CONCLUSION: About one fifth of women with normal flora develop BV over a given 6- to 12-month interval, and the modifiable risk factors of cervicitis and lack of monogamy contribute to the development of BV.
University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, Pennsylvania, 15261, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
A randomized trial of the duration of therapy with metronidazole plus or minus azithromycin for treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis.
Schwebke JR, Desmond RA
Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(2):213.
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginitis worldwide. Currently recommended treatments have poor efficacy and are associated with high rates of BV recurrence. We examined whether a longer duration of treatment with metronidazole or combination therapy with metronidazole and azithromycin would enhance the cure rates for BV. In addition, we examined factors other than drug therapy associated with cure.
METHODS: Women with symptomatic BV (defined by a modified Amsel criteria) were enrolled in a 4-arm study that compared metronidazole for 7 days versus 14 days, plus or minus azithromycin on days 1 and 3. Data regarding interim behaviors were also obtained, as were vaginal specimens for Gram staining.
RESULTS: At the first follow-up visit (7 days after the completion of therapy), there was a significant difference in cure rates among patients who received 7 days of metronidazole therapy, compared with those who received 14 days of therapy, combined across azithromycin therapy (P=.0003). There was no effect associated with azithromycin therapy. There were no differences incure rates between any of the treatment groups at 21 days after completion of therapy. Abstinence or protected sex, refraining from douching, and a lower baseline Nugent score for the vaginal Gram stain were all significantly associated with cure.
CONCLUSIONS: Cure rates for BV were significantly improved by 14 days of metronidazole treatment (compared with 7 days of treatment), but the effects were not sustained, suggesting that relapse or reinfection occurred. Combination therapy with the addition of azithromycin had no benefit. Lower baseline Nugent scores--presumably reflecting less complex vaginal flora--were significantly associated with cure, as was refraining from unprotected sex and from douching.
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. email@example.com
A longitudinal study of vaginal douching and bacterial vaginosis--a marginal structural modeling analysis.
Brotman RM, Klebanoff MA, Nansel TR, Andrews WW, Schwebke JR, Zhang J, Yu KF, Zenilman JM, Scharfstein DO
Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168(2):188.
The etiology of bacterial vaginosis is unknown, and there are no long-term therapies for preventing this frequently recurring condition. Vaginal douching has been reported to be associated with bacterial vaginosis in observational studies. However, this association may be due to confounding by indication--that is, confounding by women douching in response to vaginal symptoms associated with bacterial vaginosis. The authors used marginal structural modeling to estimate the causal effect of douching on bacterial vaginosis risk while controlling for this confounding effect. In 1999-2002, nonpregnant women (n = 3,620) were recruited into a prospective study when they visited one of 12 public health clinics in Birmingham, Alabama, for routine care. Participants were assessed quarterly for 1 year. Bacterial vaginosis was based on a Nugent's Gram stain score of 7 or higher. Thirty-two percent of participants douched in every study interval, and 43.0% never douched. Of the 12,349 study visits, 40.2% were classified as involving bacterial vaginosis. The relative risk for regular douching as compared with no douching was 1.21 (95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.38). These findings indicate that douching confers increased risk of disruption of vaginal flora. In the absence of a large randomized trial, these findings provide the best evidence to date for a risk of bacterial vaginosis associated with douching.
Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org