Medline ® Abstracts for References 29-31

of 'Bacterial vaginosis'

29
TI
A randomized trial of the duration of therapy with metronidazole plus or minus azithromycin for treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis.
AU
Schwebke JR, Desmond RA
SO
Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(2):213.
 
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginitis worldwide. Currently recommended treatments have poor efficacy and are associated with high rates of BV recurrence. We examined whether a longer duration of treatment with metronidazole or combination therapy with metronidazole and azithromycin would enhance the cure rates for BV. In addition, we examined factors other than drug therapy associated with cure.
METHODS: Women with symptomatic BV (defined by a modified Amsel criteria) were enrolled in a 4-arm study that compared metronidazole for 7 days versus 14 days, plus or minus azithromycin on days 1 and 3. Data regarding interim behaviors were also obtained, as were vaginal specimens for Gram staining.
RESULTS: At the first follow-up visit (7 days after the completion of therapy), there was a significant difference in cure rates among patients who received 7 days of metronidazole therapy, compared with those who received 14 days of therapy, combined across azithromycin therapy (P=.0003). There was no effect associated with azithromycin therapy. There were no differences incure rates between any of the treatment groups at 21 days after completion of therapy. Abstinence or protected sex, refraining from douching, and a lower baseline Nugent score for the vaginal Gram stain were all significantly associated with cure.
CONCLUSIONS: Cure rates for BV were significantly improved by 14 days of metronidazole treatment (compared with 7 days of treatment), but the effects were not sustained, suggesting that relapse or reinfection occurred. Combination therapy with the addition of azithromycin had no benefit. Lower baseline Nugent scores--presumably reflecting less complex vaginal flora--were significantly associated with cure, as was refraining from unprotected sex and from douching.
AD
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. schwebke@uab.edu
PMID
30
TI
A longitudinal study of vaginal douching and bacterial vaginosis--a marginal structural modeling analysis.
AU
Brotman RM, Klebanoff MA, Nansel TR, Andrews WW, Schwebke JR, Zhang J, Yu KF, Zenilman JM, Scharfstein DO
SO
Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168(2):188.
 
The etiology of bacterial vaginosis is unknown, and there are no long-term therapies for preventing this frequently recurring condition. Vaginal douching has been reported to be associated with bacterial vaginosis in observational studies. However, this association may be due to confounding by indication--that is, confounding by women douching in response to vaginal symptoms associated with bacterial vaginosis. The authors used marginal structural modeling to estimate the causal effect of douching on bacterial vaginosis risk while controlling for this confounding effect. In 1999-2002, nonpregnant women (n = 3,620) were recruited into a prospective study when they visited one of 12 public health clinics in Birmingham, Alabama, for routine care. Participants were assessed quarterly for 1 year. Bacterial vaginosis was based on a Nugent's Gram stain score of 7 or higher. Thirty-two percent of participants douched in every study interval, and 43.0% never douched. Of the 12,349 study visits, 40.2% were classified as involving bacterial vaginosis. The relative risk for regular douching as compared with no douching was 1.21 (95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.38). These findings indicate that douching confers increased risk of disruption of vaginal flora. In the absence of a large randomized trial, these findings provide the best evidence to date for a risk of bacterial vaginosis associated with douching.
AD
Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. rbrotman@jhsph.edu
PMID
31
TI
Personal hygienic behaviors and bacterial vaginosis.
AU
Klebanoff MA, Nansel TR, Brotman RM, Zhang J, Yu KF, Schwebke JR, Andrews WW
SO
Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37(2):94.
 
BACKGROUND: Vaginal douching is consistently associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), but whether it is a cause or result of BV remains unknown. The association between BV and other feminine hygienic behaviors is less studied; if BV symptoms caused behavior change then all hygiene behaviors might be more common among women with BV. Lack of association between nondouching hygiene behavior and BV would argue against reverse causation.
METHODS: In the Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora 3620 women had 13,517 visits where BV (Nugent score) was assessed. Associations between hygienic behavior and BV were assessed by Poisson regression.
RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic and sexual behavior factors, neither type of underwear (nylon vs. cotton prevalence ratio (PR) 1.05, 95% CI: 0.97-1.13), menstrual protection (tampons vs. pads; PR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.95-1.12; pads and tampons vs. pads 1.00, 95% CI: 0.92-1.07), use of pads or panty liners when not menstruating (PR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.95-1.05), nor weekly or greater use of hygiene spray (PR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94-1.09), powder (PR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.96-1.07) or towlettes (PR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94-1.13) were strongly associated with BV. PR for daily versus less than daily bathing and showering were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.12) and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00-1.09). Douching remained associated with BV (PR for weekly or greater vs. never 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09-1.26) and was not substantially impacted by adjustment for other hygienic behavior.
CONCLUSIONS: Douching, but not other feminine hygiene behaviors, is significantly associated with BV, providing additional evidence that douching may be causally associated with BV and is not simply a response to BV symptoms.
AD
Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510, USA. mk90h@nih.gov
PMID