Medline ® Abstracts for References 14-16
of 'Bacterial vaginosis'
An adherent Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm persists on the vaginal epithelium after standard therapy with oral metronidazole.
Swidsinski A, Mendling W, Loening-Baucke V, Swidsinski S, Dörffel Y, Scholze J, Lochs H, Verstraelen H
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan;198(1):97.e1-6. Epub 2007 Nov 19.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of standard treatment with oral metronidazole in the eradication of the bacterial vaginosis biofilm.
STUDY DESIGN: We conducted an interventional follow-up study in which 18 patients with bacterial vaginosis were treated with oral metronidazole during 1 week and subsequently had a single random follow-up assessment at 1-week intervals, up to 5 weeks, with 3 patients representing each point in time. Follow-up assessment included conventional scoring of the vaginal microflora and determination of bacterial biofilm characteristics on a vaginal biopsy through bacterial 16/23S recombinant DNA-based fluorescence in-situ hybridization.
RESULTS: Although all patients recovered, we consistently observed the resurgence with treatment cessation of a dense and active bacterial biofilm on the vaginal mucosa, primarily consisting of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae.
CONCLUSION: A large reservoir of the core bacteria to bacterial vaginosis persists as a biofilm after metronidazole treatment.
Molekulargenetisches Labor für polymikrobielle Infektionen und bakterielle Biofilme, Berlin, Germany.
Gardnerella vaginalis outcompetes 29 other bacterial species isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis, using in an in vitro biofilm formation model.
Alves P, Castro J, Sousa C, Cereija TB, Cerca N
J Infect Dis. 2014;210(4):593.
Despite the worldwide prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), its etiology is still unknown. Although BV has been associated with the presence of biofilm, the ability of BV-associated bacteria to form biofilms is still largely unknown. Here, we isolated 30 BV-associated species and characterized their virulence, using an in vitro biofilm formation model. Our data suggests that Gardnerella vaginalis had the highest virulence potential, as defined by higher initial adhesion and cytotoxicity of epithelial cells, as well as the greater propensity to form a biofilm. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that most of the BV-associated bacteria had a tendency to grow as biofilms.
Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Center of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga, Portugal.
Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry.
Fettweis JM, Brooks JP, Serrano MG, Sheth NU, Girerd PH, Edwards DJ, Strauss JF 3rd, Vaginal Microbiome Consortium, Jefferson KK, Buck GA
Microbiology. 2014 Oct;160(Pt 10):2272-82. Epub 2014 Jul 29.
Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women.
Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.