Medline ® Abstracts for References 12,24,25
of 'Bacterial vaginosis'
Adherent biofilms in bacterial vaginosis.
Swidsinski A, Mendling W, Loening-Baucke V, Ladhoff A, Swidsinski S, Hale LP, Lochs H
Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106(5 Pt 1):1013.
OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis is a common infectious disorder. Although known since ancient times, little progress has occurred in identifying causal factors. Our aims were to study the bacterial community structure and the spatial organization of microbiota on the epithelial surfaces of vaginal biopsy specimens.
METHODS: We investigated the composition and spatial organization of bacteria associated with the vaginal epithelium in biopsy specimens from 20 patients with bacterial vaginosis and 40 normal premenopausal and postmenopausal controls using a broad range of fluorescent bacterial group-specific rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.
RESULTS: Bacterial vaginosis was associated with greater occurrence and higher concentrations of a variety of bacterial groups. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis developed a characteristic adherent biofilm that was specific for bacterial vaginosis.
CONCLUSION: A biofilm comprised of confluent G vaginalis with other bacterial groups incorporated in the adherent layer is a prominent feature of bacterial vaginosis.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2.
Medizinische Klinik, Charité, CCM, Humboldt Universität, 10098 Berlin, Germany. email@example.com
Sexual risk factors and bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Fethers KA, Fairley CK, Hocking JS, Gurrin LC, Bradshaw CS
Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(11):1426.
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between sexual risk factors and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Forty-three studies reported new or multiple sexual partners and condom use relative to prevalent, incident, or recurrent BV. The summary estimate of the relative risk for the association between BV new or multiple male partners was 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.8), between BV and any female partners was 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-2.3), and between BV and condom use was 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.8-0.9). This review is the first to summarize available observational data for BV. It shows that BV is significantly associated with sexual contact with new and multiple male and female partners and that decreasing the number of unprotected sexual encounters may reduce incident and recurrent infection. Investigation of sexual transmission of BV is limited by the absence of a clear microbiological etiology; however, we have shown that the epidemiological profile of BV is similar to that of established sexually transmitted infections.
Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Carlton, Victoria, Australia.
Characteristic male urine microbiomes associate with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection.
Nelson DE, Van Der Pol B, Dong Q, Revanna KV, Fan B, Easwaran S, Sodergren E, Weinstock GM, Diao L, Fortenberry JD
PLoS One. 2010;5(11):e14116. Epub 2010 11 24.
BACKGROUND: The microbiome of the male urogenital tract is poorly described but it has been suggested that bacterial colonization of the male urethra might impact risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Previous cultivation-dependent studies showed that a variety of non-pathogenic bacteria colonize the urethra but did not thoroughly characterize these microbiomes or establish links between the compositions of urethral microbiomes and STI.
METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Here, we used 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing to identify bacteria in urine specimens collected from men who lacked symptoms of urethral inflammation but who differed in status for STI. All of the urine samples contained multiple bacterial genera and many contained taxa that colonize the human vagina. Uncultivated bacteria associated with female genital tract pathology were abundant in specimens from men who had STI.
CONCLUSIONS: Urine microbiomes from men with STI were dominated by fastidious, anaerobic and uncultivated bacteria. The same taxa were rare in STI negative individuals. Our findings suggest that the composition of male urine microbiomes is related to STI.
Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org