Medline ® Abstracts for References 1,2,17-21

of 'Bacterial vaginosis'

1
 
 
Joesoef, M, Schmid, G. Bacterial vaginosis. In: Clinical evidence, BMJ Publishing Group, London 2001. p.887.
 
no abstract available
2
TI
Bacterial vaginosis: a public health review.
AU
Morris M, Nicoll A, Simms I, Wilson J, Catchpole M
SO
BJOG. 2001;108(5):439.
 
AD
HIV&AIDS Division, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, UK.
PMID
17
TI
DNase inhibits Gardnerella vaginalis biofilms in vitro and in vivo.
AU
Hymes SR, Randis TM, Sun TY, Ratner AJ
SO
J Infect Dis. 2013;207(10):1491.
 
Bacterial vaginosis is a highly prevalent and poorly understood polymicrobial disorder of the vaginal microbiota, with significant adverse sequelae. Gardnerella vaginalis predominates in bacterial vaginosis. Biofilms of G. vaginalis are present in human infections and are implicated in persistent disease, treatment failure, and transmission. Here we demonstrate that G. vaginalis biofilms contain extracellular DNA, which is essential to their structural integrity. Enzymatic disruption of this DNA specifically inhibits biofilms, acting on both newly forming and established biofilms. DNase liberates bacteria from the biofilm to supernatant fractions and potentiates the activity of metronidazole, an antimicrobial agent used in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Using a new murine vaginal colonization model for G. vaginalis, we demonstrate>10-fold inhibition of G. vaginalis colonization by DNase. We conclude that DNase merits investigation as a potential nonantibiotic adjunct to existing bacterial vaginosis therapies in order to decrease the risk of chronic infection, recurrence, and associated morbidities.
AD
Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York 10032, USA.
PMID
18
TI
Bacterial vaginosis in sexually experienced and non-sexually experienced young women entering the military.
AU
Yen S, Shafer MA, Moncada J, Campbell CJ, Flinn SD, Boyer CB
SO
Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102(5 Pt 1):927.
 
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis by Nugent Gram stain criteria in a nonclinic national sample of young women entering recruit training; to examine clinical associations with bacterial vaginosis; and to evaluate the performance of a pH test card and Papanicolaou smear against Gram stain as screening tools for bacterial vaginosis.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1938 women was conducted. Self-collected vaginal swabs were applied to a colorimetric pH test card and a glass slide for Gram stain evaluation according to the Nugent criteria. Papanicolaou smears and samples for sexually transmitted diseases screening were collected during routine entry pelvic examinations.
RESULTS: Bacterial vaginosis prevalence was 27%, with 28% in sexually experienced and 18% in non-sexually experienced women (P = .001). Bacterial vaginosis prevalence was 11% in Asian/Pacific Islanders, which was lower than in other nonwhite ethnic groups (P = .004). Clinically, bacterial vaginosis was directly related to multiple sexual partners (P = .026), self-reportof vaginal discharge (P = .001), self-report of vaginal odor (P<.001), and concurrent Chlamydia trachomatis infection (P = .002), and inversely related to hormonal contraceptive use (P = .013). Vaginal discharge did not achieve statistical significance in multivariate analysis. Compared with the Nugent criteria, the sensitivities and specificities for bacterial vaginosis diagnosis were as follows: colorimetric pH test: 72% and 67%; Papanicolaou smear: 72% and 79%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Among these diverse young women, bacterial vaginosis occurs commonly in both sexually experienced and inexperienced young women and differs by race and ethnicity. The pH colorimetric test and Papanicolaou smear performed moderately well as screening tools for bacterial vaginosis. The inverse relationship of bacterial vaginosis with hormonal contraceptive use and its direct relationship with C. trachomatis need further study.
AD
Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA. syen@itsa.ucsf.edu
PMID
19
TI
Early sexual experiences and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis.
AU
Fethers KA, Fairley CK, Morton A, Hocking JS, Hopkins C, Kennedy LJ, Fehler G, Bradshaw CS
SO
J Infect Dis. 2009;200(11):1662.
 
BACKGROUND: We have undertaken a cross-sectional study that investigates the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexual practices in sexually experienced and inexperienced women.
METHODS: Participants were 17-21-year-old females who attend Melbourne University, Australia. Study kits that contained an information and consent form, questionnaire, swab, and slide were distributed. Information regarding demographic characteristics and a broad range of sexual practices were collected. Gram-stained, self-collected vaginal smears were scored with the Nugent method. Associations between BV and behaviors were examined by univariate and multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: BV was diagnosed in 25 (4.7%) of 528 women (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1%-6.9%). Importantly, BV was not detected in women (n = 83) without a history of coital or noncoital sexual contact (0%; 95% CI, 0%-4.3%). BV was detected in 3 (3.8%) of 78 women (95% CI, 0.8%-10.8%) with noncoital sexual experience only and in 22 (6.0%) of 367 women (95% CI, 3.8%-8.9%) who reported penile-vaginal sex. BV was associated with a history of any genital contactwith a sexual partner (P=.02). BV was strongly associated with>3 penile-vaginal sex partners in the prior year (adjusted odds ratio, 7.1; 95% CI, 2.7-18.4) by multivariable analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a strong association between BV and penile-vaginal sex with multiple partners but found no BV in sexually inexperienced women, once a history of noncoital sexual practices was elicited. Our findings indicate that BV is not present in truly sexually inexperienced women.
AD
Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Victoria, Australia. kfethers@mshc.org.au
PMID
20
TI
Sexual risk factors and bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
AU
Fethers KA, Fairley CK, Hocking JS, Gurrin LC, Bradshaw CS
SO
Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(11):1426.
 
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between sexual risk factors and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Forty-three studies reported new or multiple sexual partners and condom use relative to prevalent, incident, or recurrent BV. The summary estimate of the relative risk for the association between BV new or multiple male partners was 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.8), between BV and any female partners was 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-2.3), and between BV and condom use was 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.8-0.9). This review is the first to summarize available observational data for BV. It shows that BV is significantly associated with sexual contact with new and multiple male and female partners and that decreasing the number of unprotected sexual encounters may reduce incident and recurrent infection. Investigation of sexual transmission of BV is limited by the absence of a clear microbiological etiology; however, we have shown that the epidemiological profile of BV is similar to that of established sexually transmitted infections.
AD
Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Carlton, Victoria, Australia.
PMID
21
TI
A case-controlled study of the sexual health needs of lesbians.
AU
Skinner CJ, Stokes J, Kirlew Y, Kavanagh J, Forster GE
SO
Genitourin Med. 1996;72(4):277.
 
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the range of genital infections diagnosed in a group of lesbians attending an inner city genitourinary clinic with a control group of heterosexual women attending the same clinic.
SETTING: The Ambrose King Centre, the Royal London Hospital, a genitourinary clinic within which the Audre Lorde Clinic, a specialist sexual health clinic for women identifying as lesbians, is operated.
SUBJECTS: Two hundred and forty one women attending the specialist clinic between October 1993 and September 1994. Heterosexual controls matched for age and ethnicity were selected from the same time period.
METHODS: A retrospective case note analysis was made of 241 lesbians and 241 matched heterosexual controls. Data were collected on age, ethnicity, symptoms, diagnoses and services used.
RESULTS: An infection was diagnosed in 129 (65%) of the lesbians and 126 (62%) of the heterosexual women. Only 23 (10%) of the lesbians exclusively practised same gender sexual contact. Genital herpes (p = 0.05) and genital warts (p = 0.005) were more common in the heterosexual women. Gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection were infrequent diagnoses in both groups, occurring in four (2%) lesbians and 14 (7%) heterosexuals (p = 0.05). Bacterial vaginosis occurred in 65 (33%) of the lesbians and 27 (13%) of the heterosexuals (p<0.0001). Cervical cytology abnormalities were uncommon but only found in the lesbians.
CONCLUSIONS: Screening for genital infections in lesbians is appropriate. The high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in this group is unexplained but suggests a possible sexual transmission. Lesbians should be included within the cervical cytology screening programme.
AD
Ambrose King Centre, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, UK.
PMID