Contents Authors and Editors Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
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Authors and Editors in Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)

Editors-in-Chief



Karl B Fields, MD
  • Editor-in-Chief — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
  • Section Editor — Biomechanics, Rehabilitation, and Recovery; Sports-Related Injuries; Symptom Assessment and Physical Examination
  • Professor of Family Medicine and Sports Medicine
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Deputy Editors



Jonathan Grayzel, MD, FAAEM
  • Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
  • Deputy Editor — Emergency Medicine (Adult and Pediatric)
  • Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
  • Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • University of Massachusetts Medical School

James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
  • Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
  • Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
  • Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
  • Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
  • University of Connecticut School of Medicine

Section Editors



Chad A Asplund, MD, FACSM, MPH
  • Associate Professor of Health and Kinesiology
  • Director of Athletic Medicine
  • Head Team Physician
  • Georgia Southern University

Joseph Chorley, MD
  • Section Editor — Pediatric Sports Medicine; Adolescent Sports Medicine
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine, and Sports Medicine
  • Baylor College of Medicine

Patrice Eiff, MD
  • Section Editor — Adult Orthopedics; Sports-Related Injuries
  • Professor of Family Medicine
  • Oregon Health & Science University

Karl B Fields, MD
  • Editor-in-Chief — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
  • Section Editor — Biomechanics, Rehabilitation, and Recovery; Sports-Related Injuries; Symptom Assessment and Physical Examination
  • Professor of Family Medicine and Sports Medicine
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Peter Fricker, MBBS, FACSP
  • Section Editor — Biomechanics, Rehabilitation, and Recovery; Exercise, Sports Nutrition, and Miscellaneous; Sports-Related Injuries
  • Adjunct Professor
  • Griffith University: Institute of Sport, Exercise, and Active Living
  • Victoria University

Albert C Hergenroeder, MD
  • Section Editor — Pediatric Sports Medicine; Adolescent Sports Medicine
  • Professor & Chief of Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Sports Medicine
  • Baylor College of Medicine

Francis G O'Connor, MD, MPH, FACSM
  • Section Editor — Sports-Related Injuries; Symptom Assessment and Physical Examination; Medical Issues Related to Sports and Exercise
  • Professor of Military and Emergency Medicine
  • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Editorial Assistants



Deirdre A Mitchell, BA
  • Senior Development Editor — UpToDate

Authors



Rohit Aggarwal, MD, MSc
  • Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology
  • University of Pittsburgh

Antoin Alexander, MD
  • David Grant Medical Center
  • Travis AFB CA Family Medicine Residency Program

John Alsobrook, MD
  • Community Health & Family Medicine
  • University of Florida

Harrison Alter, MD, MS, FACEP
  • Attending Physician
  • Highland Hospital – Alameda Health System, Oakland, California
  • Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine
  • University of California, San Francisco

Bruce C Anderson, MD
  • Associate Professor of Medicine
  • Oregon Health Sciences University

Raul Artal, MD, FACOG, FACSM
  • Professor and Chair Emeritus
  • Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology and Women's Health
  • Saint Louis University

Chad A Asplund, MD, FACSM, MPH
  • Associate Professor of Health and Kinesiology
  • Director of Athletic Medicine
  • Head Team Physician
  • Georgia Southern University

Shireen Atabaki, MD, MPH, FAAP
  • Vice Chair, Institutional Review Board
  • Director, Medical Student Education
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics & Emergency Medicine
  • George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences
  • Children's National Health System

Michael C Bachman, MD, MBA
  • Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine
  • Sunrise Children's Hospital

Richard G Bachur, MD
  • Section Editor — Pediatric Trauma
  • Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

David Baron, MSEd, DO, DFAPA
  • Professor and Vice chair, Department of Psychiatry
  • Keck School of Medicine at USC

Rebecca Bassett, MD
  • Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professor
  • University of North Carolina School of Medicine

David J Berkoff, MD, FAAEM, CAQSM
  • Professor of Orthopedics and Emergency Medicine
  • Department of Exercise and Sport Science
  • University of North Carolina Chapel Hill

Anthony Beutler, MD
  • Professor of Family Medicine
  • Uniformed Services University

Michelle H Biros, MD
  • Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • University of Minnesota Medical School

Philip E Blazar, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
  • Harvard Medical School

Josh Bloom, MD, MPH
  • Clinical Instructor, Department of Family Medicine
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Jim G Blount, MD, CAQSM
  • Adjunct Clinical Professor, Departments of Family Medicine and Sports Medicine
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Blake Reid Boggess, DO, FAAFP
  • Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
  • Duke Sports Medicine Team Physician
  • Duke University Medical Center

Joan Bothner, MD
  • Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine
  • University of Colorado School of Medicine

Kathy Boutis, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MSc
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics
  • University of Toronto

George A Bray, MD
  • Boyd Professor Emeritus, Pennington Biomedical Research Center/Louisiana State University
  • Professor of Medicine Emeritus, Louisiana State University Health Science Center

James Bray, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine

Mark B Bromberg, MD, PhD
  • Professor of Neurology
  • Department of Neurology, University of Utah

David C Brooks, MD
  • Associate Professor of Surgery
  • Harvard Medical School

Gabriel P Brooks, PT, DPT, SCS, MTC
  • Director of Program Development
  • 360 Physical Therapy

Rachelle Buchbinder, MBBS, MSc, PhD, FRACP
  • Rheumatologist and Director, Monash Department of Clinical Epidemiology
  • Cabrini Hospital
  • Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine
  • Monash University

Lisa R Callahan, MD
  • Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine
  • Cornell University Medical College

Martin Camacho, MSN, CRNP, ACNP-BC, ENP-BC
  • Manager Department of Emergency Medicine
  • The Reading Hospital and Medical Center

Juan J Canoso, MD, MACR
  • ABC Medical Center, México City, Mexico
  • Adjunct Professor of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA

Dennis A Cardone, DO
  • Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
  • Chief, Division of Primary Care Sports Medicine
  • NYU Langone Medical Center

Douglas J Casa, PhD, ATC, FNAK, FACSM, FNATA
  • Chief Executive Officer, Korey Stringer Institute
  • Professor, Department of Kinesiology
  • College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources, University of Connecticut

Dipak Chandy, MD
  • Professor of Medicine and Neurology
  • New York Medical College

Jennifer Chapman, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine
  • George Washington University

Joseph Chorley, MD
  • Section Editor — Pediatric Sports Medicine; Adolescent Sports Medicine
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine, and Sports Medicine
  • Baylor College of Medicine

Kevin C Chung, MD, MS
  • Chief of Hand Surgery
  • Charles B.G de Nancrede Professor of Surgery
  • University of Michigan Health System

Mark C Clark, MD, FAAEM, FAAP, FACEP
  • Clinical Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • University of Florida College of Medicine

James R Clugston, MD, MS
  • Associate Professor of Community Health and Family Medicine
  • University of Florida College of Medicine

Dawn P Coe, PhD
  • Associate Professor, Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies
  • University of Tennessee

Joanna Cohen, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine
  • George Washington University

Spencer T Copland, MD
  • Adjunct Assistant Professor, Dept of Family Medicine, UNC
  • Sports Medicine Fellowship, Moses Cone Hospital System

Carlton J Covey, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

James M Daniels, MD, MPH, RMSK
  • Professor of Family & Community Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery
  • Vice Chair and Director of Scholarly Activity
  • Department of Family & Community Medicine
  • Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

Cooper Dean, MD
  • Clinical Assistant Professor
  • Department of Radiology
  • University of Florida College of Medicine

Jason E Decker, MD, FAAP
  • Pediatrics and Sports Medicine
  • Private Practice

Richard Derby, MD
  • Faculty Teaching Physician
  • Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • St. Louis University Family Medicine Residency Program

Kevin deWeber, MD, FAAFP, FACSM
  • Family Medicine of SW Washington Residency
  • PeaceHealth SW Medical Center
  • Affiliate Associate Professor of Family Medicine
  • Oregon Health and Science University
  • Clinical Instructor of Family Medicine
  • University of Washington School of Medicine

William W Dexter, MD
  • Professor
  • University of Vermont College of Medicine
  • Director, Sports Medicine Program
  • Maine Medical Center

Pierre A d'Hemecourt, MD
  • Lecturer in Sports Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

John P DiFiori, MD
  • Chief, Division of Sports Medicine and Non-operative Orthopaedics
  • Departments of Family Medicine and Orthopaedics
  • Head Team Physician, UCLA Department of Intercollegiate Athletics

Sameer Dixit, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Medicine and Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
  • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

J Bryan Dixon, MD
  • Clinical Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • Michigan State University College of Human Medicine
  • Medical Director
  • United States Olympic Education Center

Pamela S Douglas, MD
  • Ursula Geller Professor of Research in Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Duke University Medical Center

Timothy Ryan Draper, DO, AAFP, CAQ Sports Medicine
  • Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • University of North Carolina School of Medicine
  • Associate Program Director
  • Cone Health Sports Medicine

Patrice Eiff, MD
  • Section Editor — Adult Orthopedics; Sports-Related Injuries
  • Professor of Family Medicine
  • Oregon Health & Science University

Kristin Ernest, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
  • Baylor College of Medicine

Adele Karen Evans, MD, FAAP
  • Associate Professor of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
  • Louisiana State University School of Medicine

Randolph W Evans, MD, FAAN
  • Clinical Professor of Neurology
  • Baylor College of Medicine

Rebecca K Fastle, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • University of New Mexico School of Medicine
  • Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowship Director

Anna M Feldweg, MD
  • Director, Editorial Management — UpToDate
  • Deputy Editor — Allergy and Immunology
  • Assistant Professor of Medicine, Part-time
  • Harvard Medical School

Jill Ferrari, PhD, BSc
  • Senior Lecturer, Podiatry
  • University of East London, United Kingdom

Karl B Fields, MD
  • Editor-in-Chief — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
  • Section Editor — Biomechanics, Rehabilitation, and Recovery; Sports-Related Injuries; Symptom Assessment and Physical Examination
  • Professor of Family Medicine and Sports Medicine
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Jonathan Finnoff, DO
  • Clinical Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
  • University of California Davis School of Medicine
  • Senior Associate Consultant
  • Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
  • Medical Director
  • Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Center

Gary R Fleisher, MD
  • Editor-in-Chief — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
  • Section Editor — Pediatric Signs and Symptoms
  • Egan Family Foundation Professor
  • Harvard Medical School

Katherine Walker Foster, MD
  • Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine

Andrew French, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • University of Colorado School of Medicine

Peter Fricker, MBBS, FACSP
  • Section Editor — Biomechanics, Rehabilitation, and Recovery; Exercise, Sports Nutrition, and Miscellaneous; Sports-Related Injuries
  • Adjunct Professor
  • Griffith University: Institute of Sport, Exercise, and Active Living
  • Victoria University

Ryan P Friedberg, MD
  • Clinical Instructor, Department of Emergency Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

Scott A Gallagher, MD
  • Senior Clinical Instructor, Department of Surgery
  • University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine

Matthew Gammons, MD
  • Medical Director of Sport Medicine
  • Vermont Orthopaedic Clinic

Matthew F Gardiner, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology
  • Harvard Medical School

Anne C Gill, DrPH, MS, RN
  • Professor of Pediatrics and Medical Ethics
  • Baylor College of Medicine

Laura A Goguen, MD
  • Associate Professor in Otology and Laryngology
  • Harvard Medical School

Adam O Goldstein, MD, MPH
  • Professor
  • Department of Family Medicine
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Beth G Goldstein, MD
  • Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professor
  • Department of Dermatology
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Kaoru Goshima, MD
  • Associate Professor, Surgery
  • University of Arizona Health Sciences Center

Jocelyn R Gravlee, MD
  • Clinical Assistant Professor of Community Health and Family Medicine
  • University of Florida College of Medicine

Jonathan Grayzel, MD, FAAEM
  • Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
  • Deputy Editor — Emergency Medicine (Adult and Pediatric)
  • Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
  • Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • University of Massachusetts Medical School

Andrew J. M. Gregory, MD
  • Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation
  • Vanderbilt University School of Medic

Megan Groh Miller, MD
  • Primary Care Sports Medicine Specialist
  • Tri-Rivers Musculoskeletal Centers

Peter Hackett, MD
  • Clinical Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine
  • Director, Institute for Altitude Medicine, Telluride, Colorado

Mederic M Hall, MD
  • Associate Professor of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation
  • UI Sports Medicine, University of Iowa

Jean M Hammel, MD
  • Vice Chairman
  • Department of Emergency Medicine
  • Norwalk Hospital/Western CT Health Network

Steven D Handler, MD, MBE
  • Professor, Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery
  • University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Robert R Hansebout, MD, FRCS(C), FACS
  • Professor Emeritus, Division of Neurosurgery
  • McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada

Carol Hartigan, MD
  • Medical Director
  • New England Baptist Hospital Spine Center
  • Assistant Clinical Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
  • Harvard Medical School

Brian S Harvey, DO
  • Pediatrics and Sports Medicine
  • Salina Pediatric Care
  • Salina Regional Health Center

Robert L Hatch, MD, MPH
  • Professor of Family Medicine
  • University of Florida College of Medicine

John R Hatzenbuehler, MD, FACSM
  • St. Luke's Wood River Family Medicine

Howard W Hauptman, MD
  • Chief of Rheumatology
  • Greater Baltimore Medical Center

William G Heegaard, MD, MPH
  • Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • University of Minnesota School of Medicine

J Claude Hemphill, III, MD, MAS
  • Professor of Neurology
  • University of California, San Francisco

Albert C Hergenroeder, MD
  • Section Editor — Pediatric Sports Medicine; Adolescent Sports Medicine
  • Professor & Chief of Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Sports Medicine
  • Baylor College of Medicine

Tamara Hew-Butler, DPM, PhD
  • Associate Professor, Exercise Science
  • Oakland University

Robert S Hockberger, MD, FACEP
  • Section Editor — Adult Signs and Symptoms
  • Emeritus Professor of Medicine
  • David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Judd E Hollander, MD
  • Professor and Vice Chair Department of Emergency Medicine
  • Thomas Jefferson University

Thomas M Howard, MD, FACSM
  • Physician
  • Flexogenix
  • Cary, North Carolina

Allyson S Howe, MD, FAAFP, CAQ Sports Medicine
  • Assistant Professor of Family and Sports Medicine
  • Tufts University

Mary Lloyd Ireland, MD
  • Associate Professor of Sports Medicine
  • University of Kentucky College of Medicine

Paul Ishimine, MD
  • Clinical Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics
  • University of California, San Diego School of Medicine

Jonathan Jackson, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Bret C Jacobs, DO, MA
  • Clinical Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
  • Division of Primary Care Sports Medicine
  • NYU Langone Medical Center

Deborah S Jacobs, MD
  • Associate Professor of Ophthalmology, Part-Time
  • Harvard Medical School

Carrie A Jaworski, MD, FAAFP, FACSM
  • Clinical Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • Director, Division of Primary Care Sports Medicine
  • University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine

Neeru Jayanthi, MD
  • Associate Professor of Family Medicine and Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
  • Loyola University Medical Center

Rob Johnson, MD
  • Professor of Family Medicine and Community Health
  • University of Minnesota
  • Team Physician
  • University of Minnesota Athletics

Samir V Joshi, MD, DCH, FAAP
  • Clinical Assistant Professor
  • University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

Cecilia Matilda Jude, MD
  • Clinical Professor of Radiology
  • David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Edward Kachur, MD, FRCS(C)
  • Assistant Professor, Division of Neurosurgery
  • McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada

Amy Kaji, MD, PhD
  • Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Norman M Kaplan, MD
  • Editor-in-Chief — Nephrology
  • Section Editor — Hypertension
  • Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine
  • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Kristine A Karlson, MD
  • Associate Professor of Community and Family Medicine and Orthopedics
  • Dartmouth Medical School

Nancy R Kelly, MD, MPH
  • Professor of Pediatrics
  • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

Karim Khan, MD
  • Professor of Family Medicine
  • University of British Columbia

Andrew J Kienstra, MD
  • Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine
  • University of Texas at Austin
  • Dell Medical School
  • Dell Children's Medical Center

Yukiko Kimura, MD
  • Professor of Pediatrics
  • Rutgers University - New Jersey Medical School
  • Division Chief of Pediatric Rheumatology
  • Joseph M Sanzari Children's Hospital
  • Hackensack University Medical Center

Carolyn E Kloek, MD
  • Instructor in Ophthalmology
  • Harvard Medical School

Scott M Koehler, MD
  • Physician, Sports Medicine Specialist
  • Allina Health, Northfield, Minnesota

Milind J Kothari, DO
  • Professor of Neurology
  • Penn State College of Medicine

David Kruse, MD
  • Primary Care Sports Medicine
  • Orthopaedic Specialty Institute

Geoffrey Kuhlman, MD, CAQSM, FAAFP
  • Director of Sports Medicine
  • Hinsdale Family Practice Residency

John H Kwon, MD, PhD
  • Associate Professor
  • UT Southwestern Medical Center

J Thomas Lamont, MD
  • Editor-in-Chief — Gastroenterology and Hepatology
  • Section Editor — Anorectal Disorders and Misc. Lower GI Disease; Nutrition, Malabsorption, and Misc. Upper GI Disease
  • Professor of Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

Annie Lapointe, MD, MPH
  • Assistant Professor
  • University of Montreal, Canada

Shane L Larson, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Lois K Lee, MD, MPH
  • Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
  • Harvard Medical School

Eric Legome, MD
  • Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine
  • SUNY Downstate School of Medicine
  • Chief of Emergency Medicine
  • Kings Count Hospital, Brooklyn

Julie C Leonard, MD, MPH
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics
  • Nationwide's Children's Hospital
  • The Ohio State University, College of Medicine
  • Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine and
  • Nationwide Children’s Hospital

Gregory D Lewis, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

Mark S Link, MD
  • Section Editor — Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Professor of Medicine
  • UT Southwestern Medical Center

Mark Lydecker, MPT, OCS, ATC
  • Clinical Associate Professor
  • Doctor of Physical Therapy Program
  • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

James MacDonald, MD, MPH, FAAFP, FACSM
  • Nationwide Children's Hospital, Division of Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Family Medicine
  • The Ohio State University

Charles G Macias, MD, MPH
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics
  • Baylor College of Medicine

Kelly Michele Malloy, MD
  • Associate Professor
  • Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • University of Michigan Medical School

Scott David Martin, MD
  • Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
  • Harvard Medical School

Sean N Martin, DO
  • Branch Chief, Sports Medicine
  • Headquarters Air Force Special Operations Command
  • Office of the Command Surgeon
  • Hurlburt Field, FL

Tamara L Martin, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
  • Harvard Medical School

Karen L Maughan, MD
  • Associate Professor of Family Medicine
  • University of Virginia

Ryanne J Mayersak, MD, MS
  • Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • Assistant Residency Director
  • Oregon Health & Science University

David K McCulloch, MD
  • Diabetologist
  • Washington Permanente Medical Group

Christopher McGrew, MD
  • Professor of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation
  • University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center

Dennis J McTigue, DDS
  • Professor of Pediatric Dentistry
  • Ohio State University College of Dentistry

William P Meehan, III, MD
  • Director of The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention
  • Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Orthopedics
  • Harvard Medical School

Donna Reyes Mendez, MD
  • Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • University of Texas Health Science Center (UTHSC) Medical School Houston

Angelo Mercieri, MD
  • Internal Medicine Unit
  • Head Physician of Emergencies Unit
  • Bolognini Hospital, Seriate, Bergamo, Italy

Thomas J Mezzanotte, MD
  • Orthopaedic Traumatologist
  • McLeod Regional Medical Center

Lyle J Micheli, MD
  • Director, Division of Sports Medicine
  • Boston Children’s Hospital
  • Clinical Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
  • Harvard Medical School
  • Secretary General
  • International Federation of Sports Medicine

Marc L Miller, MD
  • Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine
  • Tufts University School of Medicine

Shahla Modarresi, MD
  • Associate Clinical Professor of Radiology
  • David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Daren Molina, MD
  • Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine, and Sports Medicine
  • Baylor College of Medicine

Brian R Moore, MD
  • Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center

Stefan Moosmayer, MD, PhD
  • Consultant Orthopedic Surgeon
  • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
  • Martina Hansens Hospital

Miriam C Morey, PhD
  • Professor
  • Department of Medicine Co-Director
  • Older Americans Independence (Pepper) Center
  • Associate Research Director
  • Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center
  • Durham VA Medical Center

Sean W Mulvaney, MD
  • Sports Medicine Fellow
  • Uniformed Services University

Sara Neal, MD
  • Associate Professor of Family Medicine
  • Moses Cone Health System

Mark I Neuman, MD, MPH
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

Peter A Nigrovic, MD
  • Associate Professor of Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

Nathaniel Nye, MD
  • Adjunct Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • Uniformed Services University

Michael J O'Brien, MD
  • Director of the Sports Concussion Clinic
  • Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital
  • Assistant Professor of Orthopedics
  • Harvard Medical School

Paul M O'Byrne, MB, FRSC
  • EJ Moran Campbell Professor
  • McMaster University, Canada

Francis G O'Connor, MD, MPH, FACSM
  • Section Editor — Sports-Related Injuries; Symptom Assessment and Physical Examination; Medical Issues Related to Sports and Exercise
  • Professor of Military and Emergency Medicine
  • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Shimpei Ono, MD, PhD
  • Assistant Professor
  • Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery
  • Nippon Medical School

Craig Parsons, MS, PT
  • The Physical Therapy Network

Jon Patricios, MBBCh, MMedSci, FACSM, FFSEM (UK)
  • Extraordinary Lecturer, Section of Sports Medicine
  • Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa
  • Honorary Lecturer, Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences
  • University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa

Antonio Pelliccia, MD
  • Chief of Cardiology
  • Institute of Sport Medicine and Science, Rome, Italy

Mark A Perazella, MD, FACP
  • Professor of Medicine
  • Yale University School of Medicine

Leigh Perreault, MD
  • Associate Professor of Medicine
  • University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
  • Associate Professor of Epidemiology
  • Colorado School of Public Health

Catherine E Perron, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
  • Harvard Medical School

Douglas M Peterson, MD, MBA, FACP, FACSM
  • Assistant Professor of Medicine
  • Mayo Medical School

David J Petron, MD
  • Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics
  • University of Utah

Nicholas Phan, MD, FRCSC, FACS
  • Assistant Professor, Division of Neurosurgery
  • Department of Surgery
  • University of Toronto

James M Pivarnik, PhD
  • Professor of Kinesiology, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics
  • Michigan State University

Tore A Prestgaard, MD
  • Department of Neurology, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Drammen Hospital, Norway
  • Board Member of the Scandinavian Foundation of Medicine and Science in Sports

Margot Putukian, MD, FACSM
  • Director of Athletic Medicine
  • Princeton University
  • Associate Clinical Professor
  • Robert Wood Johnson Medical School - University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey

David B Pyne, PhD, FACSM
  • Professor of Physiology
  • Australian Institute of Sport

Catherine Rogers Rainbow, MD, SMCAQ
  • Clinical Instructor
  • University of North Carolina School of Medicine

James Rainville, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
  • Harvard Medical School

Ali Raja, MD, MBA, MPH
  • Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine and Executive Vice Chairman
  • Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital

Sathish Rajasekaran, MD
  • Assistant Clinical Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
  • University of Alberta

Karina Reyner Pauly, MD
  • Associate Professor of Medicine
  • Texas A&M College of Medicine

Michael C Riddell, PhD
  • Professor
  • York University

David Ring, MD, PhD
  • Associate Dean for Comprehensive Care
  • Dell Medical School, University of Texas at Austin

William O Roberts, MD, MS, FACSM
  • Professor of Family Medicine and Community Health
  • University of Minnesota Medical School

W Neal Roberts, Jr, MD
  • Chief of Rheumatology
  • University of Lousiville

Diana Robinson, MBBS FACSEP
  • Chair and Chief Project Manager
  • Specialist Training Program Education Projects
  • Australasian College of Sport and Exercise Physicians

Richard Rodenberg, MD
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics
  • Nationwide Children’s Hospital
  • The Ohio State University

Jonathan M Rosen, MD
  • Director
  • Undergraduate Medical Education
  • Associate Dean
  • University of Vermont College of Medicine
  • Western Connecticut Health Network

Mitchell H Rosner, MD
  • Professor of Medicine
  • University of Virginia Health System

Seward B Rutkove, MD
  • Professor of Neurology
  • Harvard Medical School

Leticia Manning Ryan, MD, MPH, FAAP
  • Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
  • Division of Emergency Medicine
  • Johns Hopkins Children's Center

Jonathan Santana, DO
  • Assistant Professor of Adolescent and Primary Care Sports Medicine
  • Baylor College of Medicine

Susan A Scherl, MD
  • Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
  • University of Nebraska

Sara Schutzman, MD
  • Assistant Professor
  • Harvard Medical School

Paula Schweich, MD
  • Clinical Professor of Pediatrics
  • University of Washington School of Medicine

Alex Scott, PhD, RPT
  • Associate Professor of Physical Therapy
  • University of British Columbia

Sandeep Sebastin, MMed, FAMS
  • Senior Consultant, Department of Hand & Reconstructive Microsurgery
  • National University Hospital, Singapore

Scott C Sherman, MD
  • Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
  • Rush Medical College

Robert H Shmerling, MD
  • Section Editor — Diagnostic Issues in Rheumatology
  • Associate Professor of Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

Stephen M Simons, MD, FACSM
  • Co-Director
  • South Bend-Notre Dame Sports Medicine Fellowship

Mark Slabaugh, MD
  • Associate Professor of Surgery
  • Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences

Peter J Snyder, MD
  • Editor-in-Chief — Endocrinology
  • Section Editor — Pituitary Disease; Male Reproductive Endocrinology
  • Professor of Medicine
  • University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Taunton R Southwood, MD, FRACP, FRCPA, FRCP, FRCPCH
  • Professor
  • University of Birmingham and Birmingham Children's Hospital

Kimberly P Stone, MD, MS, MA
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics
  • University of Washington

Andrea Stracciolini, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
  • Harvard Medical School

David M Systrom, MD, FRCPC
  • Assistant Professor of Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

Jonathan Taffe, MD
  • Shands Teaching Physician
  • University of Florida College of Medicine

Cole Taylor, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

John S Tipton, MD
  • Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine
  • University of North Carolina

Stephen Titus, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Family Medicine Residency
  • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Derrick J Todd, MD, PhD
  • Instructor of Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

D Scott Upton, MD
  • Sports Medicine
  • Private Practice, San Diego

Pat R Vehrs, PhD, FACSM
  • Associate Professor
  • Brigham Young University

Timothy J Von Fange, MD
  • Family Medicine and Sports Performance Clinical Faculty
  • St. Vincent Family Medicine Residency

Lauren N Weinberger Conlon, MD
  • Assistant Professor Department of Emergency Medicine
  • University of Pennsylvania

Gerald L Weinhouse, MD
  • Assistant Professor of Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

Klane White, MD
  • Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine
  • University of Washington School of Medicine

Christopher T Whitlow, MD, PhD, MHA
  • Associate Professor and Chief of Neuroradiology
  • Wake Forest School of Medicine

James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
  • Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
  • Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
  • Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
  • Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
  • University of Connecticut School of Medicine

Craig Young, MD
  • Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and Family and Community Medicine
  • Medical College of Wisconsin

Richard D Zane, MD
  • Section Editor — Emergency Medical Services/Disaster Medicine
  • Professor and Chair of Emergency Medicine
  • University of Colorado School of Medicine

Peer Reviewers



Kevin deWeber, MD, FAAFP, FACSM
  • Family Medicine of SW Washington Residency
  • PeaceHealth SW Medical Center
  • Affiliate Associate Professor of Family Medicine
  • Oregon Health and Science University
  • Clinical Instructor of Family Medicine
  • University of Washington School of Medicine

Timothy Ryan Draper, DO, AAFP, CAQ Sports Medicine
  • Assistant Professor of Family Medicine
  • University of North Carolina School of Medicine
  • Associate Program Director
  • Cone Health Sports Medicine

Patrice Eiff, MD
  • Section Editor — Adult Orthopedics; Sports-Related Injuries
  • Professor of Family Medicine
  • Oregon Health & Science University

Karl B Fields, MD
  • Editor-in-Chief — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
  • Section Editor — Biomechanics, Rehabilitation, and Recovery; Sports-Related Injuries; Symptom Assessment and Physical Examination
  • Professor of Family Medicine and Sports Medicine
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Ryan P Friedberg, MD
  • Clinical Instructor, Department of Emergency Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

James MacDonald, MD, MPH, FAAFP, FACSM
  • Nationwide Children's Hospital, Division of Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Family Medicine
  • The Ohio State University

Robert F Ostrum, MD
  • Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Tore A Prestgaard, MD
  • Department of Neurology, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Drammen Hospital, Norway
  • Board Member of the Scandinavian Foundation of Medicine and Science in Sports