- Richard D deShazo, MD
Richard D deShazo, MD
- Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics
- University of Mississippi Medical Center
- Scott Stringer, MD
Scott Stringer, MD
- Professor of Otolaryngology and Communicative Sciences
- University of Mississippi Medical Center
Atrophic rhinitis is an uncommon and distinct clinical syndrome of progressive atrophy of the nasal mucosa. It is characterized by paradoxical nasal congestion and thick, troublesome nasal secretions, and complicated by bacterial colonization and infection. Enlargement of the nasal cavities may occur in some forms. Most patients also have concomitant sinusitis and thus the disorder is more accurately called atrophic rhinosinusitis. There are primary and secondary forms of this disorder, which affect different populations and have distinct presentations.
This topic will discuss the classification, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of atrophic rhinosinusitis. Other forms of chronic rhinosinusitis are reviewed separately. (See "Chronic rhinosinusitis: Clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and diagnosis" and "Management of chronic rhinosinusitis".)
Atrophic rhinosinusitis may be categorized into two forms: primary (or idiopathic) and secondary.
●The primary form is seen primarily in young people in the developing world. It is associated with mucosal colonization predominantly with Klebsiella ozaenae as well as other organisms. The primary presenting symptom is foul smelling nasal discharge.
●Secondary atrophic rhinosinusitis is seen with some regularity in the developed world and occurs in patients who underwent prior sinonasal trauma, surgery, radiation therapy, or have certain inflammatory conditions (granulomatous diseases).
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- PRIMARY ATROPHIC RHINOSINUSITIS
- Nasal exam
- Radiographic findings
- SECONDARY ATROPHIC RHINOSINUSITIS
- Associated conditions
- Symptoms and signs
- Nasal exam findings
- EVALUATION AND DIAGNOSIS
- Diagnostic criteria
- Evaluation for underlying systemic disease
- - Nasal biopsy
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
- Nasal lavage and lubrication
- Other therapies
- Therapies that are not recommended
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS