Medline ® Abstracts for References 1,2
Localization of an ataxia-telangiectasia gene to chromosome 11q22-23.
Gatti RA, Berkel I, Boder E, Braedt G, Charmley P, Concannon P, Ersoy F, Foroud T, Jaspers NG, Lange K
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a human autosomal recessive disorder of childhood characterized by: (1) progressive cerebellar ataxia with degeneration of Purkinje cells; (2) hypersensitivity of fibroblasts and lymphocytes to ionizing radiation; (3) a 61-fold and 184-fold increased cancer incidence in white and black patients, respectively; (4) non-random chromosomal rearrangements in lymphocytes; (5) thymic hypoplasia with cellular and humoral (IgA and IgG2) immunodeficiencies; (6) elevated serum level of alphafetoprotein; (7) premature ageing; and (8) endocrine disorders, such as insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. A DNA processing or repair protein is the suspected common denominator in this pathology. Heterozygotes are generally healthy; however, the sensitivity of their cultured cells to ionizing radiation is intermediate between normal individuals and that of affected homozygotes. Furthermore, heterozygous females are at an increased risk of breast cancer. These findings, when coupled with an estimated carrier frequency of 0.5-5.0%, suggest that (1) as many as one in five women with breast cancer may carry the AT gene and that (2) the increased radiation sensitivity of AT heterozygotes may be causing radiation therapists to reduce the doses of radiation used for treating cancer in all patients. To identify the genetic defect responsible for this multifaceted disorder, and to provide effective carrier detection, we performed a genetic linkage analysis of 31 families with AT-affected members. This has allowed us to localize a gene for AT to chromosomal region 11q22-23.
Department of Pathology, UCLA School of Medicine 90024.
A single ataxia telangiectasia gene with a product similar to PI-3 kinase.
Savitsky K, Bar-Shira A, Gilad S, Rotman G, Ziv Y, Vanagaite L, Tagle DA, Smith S, Uziel T, Sfez S, Ashkenazi M, Pecker I, Frydman M, Harnik R, Patanjali SR, Simmons A, Clines GA, Sartiel A, Gatti RA, Chessa L, Sanal O, Lavin MF, Jaspers NG, Taylor AM, Arlett CF, Miki T, Weissman SM, Lovett M, Collins FS, Shiloh Y
A gene, ATM, that is mutated in the autosomal recessive disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT) was identified by positional cloning on chromosome 11q22-23. AT is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, cancer predisposition, radiation sensitivity, and cell cycle abnormalities. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, with four complementation groups that have been suspected to represent different genes. ATM, which has a transcript of 12 kilobases, was found to be mutated in AT patients from all complementation groups, indicating that it is probably the sole gene responsible for this disorder. A partial ATM complementary DNA clone of 5.9 kilobases encoded a putative protein that is similar to several yeast and mammalian phosphatidylinositol-3' kinases that are involved in mitogenic signal transduction, meiotic recombination, and cell cycle control. The discovery of ATM should enhance understanding of AT and related syndromes and may allow the identification of AT heterozygotes, who are at increased risk of cancer.
Department of Human Genetics, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.