A newborn should have a thorough evaluation performed within 24 hours of birth to identify any abnormality that would alter the normal newborn course or identify a medical condition that should be addressed (eg, anomalies, birth injuries, jaundice, or cardiopulmonary disorders) . This assessment includes review of the maternal, family, and prenatal history and a complete examination. Depending upon the length of stay, another examination should be performed within 24 hours before discharge from the hospital.
The assessment of the newborn infant will be reviewed here. The routine care of the newborn infant is discussed separately. (See "Overview of the routine management of the healthy newborn infant".)
The newborn history includes the following:
- Review of this pregnancy, labor, and delivery including screening tests and risk factors for sepsis.
- Review of past pregnancies including a history of congenital anomalies, still births, and/or genetic or syndromic conditions.
- Review of the mother's and father's medical and genetic history. In particular, maternal illnesses prior to and during pregnancy, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, or pregnancy complications, such as gestational diabetes or preeclampsia, may affect fetal growth or lead to other complications. A review of maternal medications should be performed as some maternal medications may have intrauterine effects or be excreted in breast milk. (See "Neonatal lupus" and "Preeclampsia: Clinical features and diagnosis".)
Screening tests — In developed countries and some developing countries, prenatal screening tests are routinely performed. The results of these screening tests should be reviewed as an abnormal finding may be indicative of a medical condition that warrants further evaluation. The following section is a summary of available prenatal testing. A more complete discussion of prenatal screening and care are presented separately. (See "Initial prenatal assessment and first trimester prenatal care", section on 'Laboratory tests'.)