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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 11

of 'Approach to the patient with abnormal liver biochemical and function tests'

Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lactate dehydrogenase M4 by liver macrophages: a mechanism for elimination of enzymes from plasma. Evidence for competition by creatine kinase MM, adenylate kinase, malate, and alcohol dehydrogenase.
Smit MJ, Duursma AM, Bouma JM, Gruber M
J Biol Chem. 1987;262(27):13020.
We have previously shown that the rapid clearance of intravenously injected lactate dehydrogenase M4 from plasma is mainly due to endocytosis by macrophages in liver, spleen, and bone marrow. We have now studied endocytosis of lactate dehydrogenase M4 in detail, using freshly isolated rat liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) in vitro. 125I-lactate dehydrogenase M4 rapidly accumulated in the cells and was subsequently degraded to trichloroacetic acid-soluble material. Degradation was inhibited by leupeptin, an inhibitor of lysosomal proteases. Breakdown of the protein was also greatly diminished by treatment of the cells with chloroquine, a weak base which inhibits proteolysis by raising the pH in endosomes and lysosomes. High concentrations of chloroquine inhibited uptake. Lactate dehydrogenase M4 was not endocytosed by liver endothelial cells, although, under the same conditions, these cells were shown to accumulate horse radish peroxidase via a mannose-specific receptor. Uptake of lactate dehydrogenase M4 by Kupffer cells was strongly reduced after pretreatment of the cells with low concentrations of proteases. Endocytosis of lactate dehydrogenase M4 exhibited saturation kinetics (Km = 0.8 microM) and was competitively inhibited by mitochondrial and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, adenylate kinase, and creatine kinase MM, enzymes which are rapidly cleared in vivo. Enzymes with long half-lives in plasma, namely lactate dehydrogenase H4, alanine aminotransferase, and cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase did not compete at concentrations up to 10 microM. Our results indicate that Kupffer cells contain a receptor that is involved in the clearance of lactate dehydrogenase M4 and a number of other tissue-derived enzymes from plasma. Uptake of lactate dehydrogenase M4 does not occur via a receptor that recognizes carbohydrate residues, for the enzyme is not a glycoprotein.
Department of Biochemistry, Groningen University, The Netherlands.