Approach to the child with acute diarrhea in resource-limited countries
- Jason B Harris, MD, MPH
Jason B Harris, MD, MPH
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Mark Pietroni, MA, MBBChir, FRCP, DTM&H
Mark Pietroni, MA, MBBChir, FRCP, DTM&H
- Visiting Professor, Department of Health and Social Science
- University of the West of England
- Section Editors
- Stephen B Calderwood, MD
Stephen B Calderwood, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Infectious Diseases
- Section Editor — Bacterial Infections
- Professor of Medicine (Microbiology and Immunobiology)
- Harvard Medical School
- Morven S Edwards, MD
Morven S Edwards, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
Diarrhea is the passage of loose or watery stools at least three times in a 24 hour period. Diarrheal illness is the second leading cause of child mortality; among children younger than five years, it causes 1.5 to 2 million deaths annually [1,2]. In resource-limited countries, infants experience a median of six episodes annually; children experience a median of three episodes annually .
Diarrheal illness may consist of acute watery diarrhea, invasive (bloody) diarrhea, or chronic diarrhea (persistent ≥14 days). This classification facilitates the approach to management of childhood diarrhea. Issues related to the etiology, clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of acute watery diarrhea and invasive diarrhea in children in resource-limited countries are reviewed here. Issues related to chronic diarrhea in children are discussed separately. (See "Persistent diarrhea in children in resource-limited countries".)
Most cases of acute diarrhea in resource-limited countries are caused by infectious gastroenteritis. Less commonly, acute diarrhea can be a symptom of a systemic infection or an intra-abdominal surgical emergency.
Infectious gastroenteritis — The most common microbiological causes of infectious gastroenteritis differ by age group, geographical region, and type of diarrhea. In a large study of children five years or younger at seven sites in Asia and Africa, stool samples from 9439 children with moderate to severe diarrhea and from 13129 controls were tested for a panel of microorganisms . Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were important pathogens at all study sites, and most attributable cases of diarrhea were due to these organisms. Rotavirus was the most common pathogen among children under two years old, whereas Shigella was the most frequently isolated pathogen in children aged two to five. Cryptosporidium was the second most common pathogen among infants under one year old, but was infrequently detected in children older than two years. Aeromonas was a frequent pathogen in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and Campylobacter jejuni in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India. Vibrio cholerae was an important cause of diarrhea at those three Asian sites as well as Mozambique. In a follow-up study that tested a subset of these specimens with a more sensitive panel of molecular tests (quantitative polymerase chain reaction), a higher proportion of diarrheal cases were associated with a detectable pathogen (89 versus 52 percent in the earlier study), and adenovirus 40/41 was identified as an additional common pathogen . Although norovirus was not identified as a top cause of diarrhea in this facility-based study, in a separate multi-country community-based cohort of 199 children, norovirus was identified in approximately 25 percent of diarrheal episodes, but because of the prevalence of asymptomatic carriage and copathogens, it was estimated to cause approximately 5 percent of cases .
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- Infectious gastroenteritis
- - Acute watery diarrhea
- - Invasive (bloody) diarrhea
- Associated conditions
- CLINICAL ASSESSMENT
- Classification of diarrhea
- Hydration status
- Nutritional status
- Physical examination
- Diagnostic studies
- Acute watery diarrhea
- - Fluid and electrolytes
- Malnourished children
- - Nutrition
- - Vitamins and minerals
- Vitamin A
- - Antibiotics
- - Other therapies
- Invasive diarrhea
- - Hemolytic uremic syndrome