The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by antibodies directed against either phospholipids or plasma proteins bound to anionic phospholipids. Patients with the APS may display a constellation of clinical features including venous and arterial thrombosis, recurrent fetal losses, and thrombocytopenia. This disorder is referred to as the primary APS when it occurs alone; however, it can also be found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), other rheumatic diseases, and certain infections and drugs.
Four types of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been characterized:
●Antibodies causing a false-positive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test
●Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL)