Antimicrobial therapy of prosthetic valve endocarditis
- Adolf W Karchmer, MD
Adolf W Karchmer, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
Infection of a prosthetic heart valve can be difficult to diagnose and manage. Optimal treatment of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) requires:
●Identification of the causative microorganism
●Selection of a bactericidal antimicrobial regimen of proven efficacy
●A clear understanding of the intracardiac pathology and attendant complications of PVE
●Surgical intervention, especially when infection has extended beyond the valve to contiguous cardiac tissue
- Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, et al. Infective endocarditis: diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, American Heart Association: endorsed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Circulation 2005; 111:e394.
- Habib G, Hoen B, Tornos P, et al. Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (new version 2009): the Task Force on the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Endorsed by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the International Society of Chemotherapy (ISC) for Infection and Cancer. Eur Heart J 2009; 30:2369.
- Nishimura RA, Carabello BA, Faxon DP, et al. ACC/AHA 2008 guideline update on valvular heart disease: focused update on infective endocarditis: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation 2008; 118:887.
- Nishimura RA, Otto CM, Bonow RO, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 63:e57.
- Karchmer AW. Infections of Prosthetic Heart Valves. In: Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices, 3rd ed, Waldvogel FA, Bisno AL (Eds), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC 2000. p.145.
- Wilson WR, Karchmer AW, Dajani AS, et al. Antibiotic treatment of adults with infective endocarditis due to streptococci, enterococci, staphylococci, and HACEK microorganisms. American Heart Association. JAMA 1995; 274:1706.
- Lalani T, Chu VH, Park LP, et al. In-hospital and 1-year mortality in patients undergoing early surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis. JAMA Intern Med 2013; 173:1495.
- Chirouze C, Alla F, Fowler VG Jr, et al. Impact of early valve surgery on outcome of Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60:741.
- Karchmer AW, Bayer AS. Editorial commentary: surgical therapy for Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve endocarditis: proceed with caution (Caveat Emptor). Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60:750.
- Drinković D, Morris AJ, Pottumarthy S, et al. Bacteriological outcome of combination versus single-agent treatment for staphylococcal endocarditis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003; 52:820.
- Karchmer AW, Archer GL, Dismukes WE. Rifampin treatment of prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5 Suppl 3:S543.
- Archer GL, Johnston JL, Vazquez GJ, Haywood HB 3rd. Efficacy of antibiotic combinations including rifampin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis: in vitro and in vivo studies. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5 Suppl 3:S538.
- Kobasa WD, Kaye KL, Shapiro T, Kaye D. Therapy for experimental endocarditis due to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5 Suppl 3:S533.
- Chuard C, Herrmann M, Vaudaux P, et al. Successful therapy of experimental chronic foreign-body infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by antimicrobial combinations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991; 35:2611.
- Lucet JC, Herrmann M, Rohner P, et al. Treatment of experimental foreign body infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990; 34:2312.
- Rouse MS, Wilcox RM, Henry NK, et al. Ciprofloxacin therapy of experimental endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990; 34:273.
- Souli M, Pontikis K, Chryssouli Z, et al. Successful treatment of right-sided prosthetic valve endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant teicoplanin-heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus with linezolid. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2005; 24:760.
- Cubicin resistance should be closely monitored in bacteremia patients. The Pink Sheet 2006; 68:11.
- Mohan SS, McDermott BP, Cunha BA. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis with paravalvular abscess treated with daptomycin. Heart Lung 2005; 34:69.
- Howden BP, Ward PB, Charles PG, et al. Treatment outcomes for serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38:521.
- Moore CL, Osaki-Kiyan P, Haque NZ, et al. Daptomycin versus vancomycin for bloodstream infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration: a case-control study. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54:51.
- Dhand A, Sakoulas G. Daptomycin in combination with other antibiotics for the treatment of complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Clin Ther 2014; 36:1303.
- Sakoulas G, Moise PA, Casapao AM, et al. Antimicrobial salvage therapy for persistent staphylococcal bacteremia using daptomycin plus ceftaroline. Clin Ther 2014; 36:1317.
- Karchmer AW, Archer GL, Dismukes WE. Staphylococcus epidermidis causing prosthetic valve endocarditis: microbiologic and clinical observations as guides to therapy. Ann Intern Med 1983; 98:447.
- Matsumoto JY, Wilson WR, Wright AJ, et al. Synergy of penicillin and decreasing concentration of aminoglycosides against enterococci from patients with infective endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1980; 18:944.
- Bayer AS, Bolger AF, Taubert KA, et al. Diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis and its complications. Circulation 1998; 98:2936.
- Farber BF, Eliopoulos GM, Ward JI, et al. Resistance to penicillin-streptomycin synergy among clinical isolates of viridans streptococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1983; 24:871.
- Enzler MJ, Rouse MS, Henry NK, et al. In vitro and in vivo studies of streptomycin-resistant, penicillin-susceptible streptococci from patients with infective endocarditis. J Infect Dis 1987; 155:954.
- Rice LB, Calderwood SB, Eliopoulos GM, et al. Enterococcal endocarditis: a comparison of prosthetic and native valve disease. Rev Infect Dis 1991; 13:1.
- Eliopoulos GM. Enterococcal endocarditis. In: Infective Endocarditis, Kaye D (Ed), Raven Press, New York 1992. p.209.
- Eliopoulos GM. Aminoglycoside resistant enterococcal endocarditis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1993; 7:117.
- GERACI JE, MARTIN WJ. Antibiotic therapy of bacterial endocarditis. VI. Subacute enterococcal endocarditis; clinical, pathologic and therapeutic consideration of 33 cases. Circulation 1954; 10:173.
- Gavaldà J, Len O, Miró JM, et al. Brief communication: treatment of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis with ampicillin plus ceftriaxone. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146:574.
- Olaison L, Schadewitz K, Swedish Society of Infectious Diseases Quality Assurance Study Group for Endocarditis. Enterococcal endocarditis in Sweden, 1995-1999: can shorter therapy with aminoglycosides be used? Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34:159.
- Dahl A, Rasmussen RV, Bundgaard H, et al. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis: a pilot study of the relationship between duration of gentamicin treatment and outcome. Circulation 2013; 127:1810.
- Fernández-Hidalgo N, Almirante B, Gavaldà J, et al. Ampicillin plus ceftriaxone is as effective as ampicillin plus gentamicin for treating enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56:1261.
- Rao N, White GJ. Successful treatment of Enterococcus faecalis prosthetic valve endocarditis with linezolid. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35:902.
- Levine DP, Lamp KC. Daptomycin in the treatment of patients with infective endocarditis: experience from a registry. Am J Med 2007; 120:S28.
- Meyer DJ, Gerding DN. Favorable prognosis of patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by gram-negative bacilli of the HACEK group. Am J Med 1988; 85:104.
- Murray BE, Karchmer AW, Moellering RC Jr. Diphtheroid prosthetic valve endocarditis. A study of clinical features and infecting organisms. Am J Med 1980; 69:838.
- Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes D, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48:503.
- Gilbert HM, Peters ED, Lang SJ, Hartman BJ. Successful treatment of fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 22:348.
- Melgar GR, Nasser RM, Gordon SM, et al. Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis in 16 patients. An 11-year experience in a tertiary care hospital. Medicine (Baltimore) 1997; 76:94.
- Nguyen MH, Nguyen ML, Yu VL, et al. Candida prosthetic valve endocarditis: prospective study of six cases and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 22:262.
- Lye DC, Hughes A, O'Brien D, Athan E. Candida glabrata prosthetic valve endocarditis treated successfully with fluconazole plus caspofungin without surgery: a case report and literature review. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2005; 24:753.
- Aaron L, Therby A, Viard JP, et al. Successful medical treatment of Candida albicans in mechanical prosthetic valve endocarditis. Scand J Infect Dis 2003; 35:351.