Antimicrobial therapy of prosthetic valve endocarditis
- Adolf W Karchmer, MD
Adolf W Karchmer, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
The antimicrobial therapy of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) will be reviewed here. The pathogenesis, microbiology, pathology, clinical features, diagnosis, prevention, and surgical management of PVE are discussed separately. (See "Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis" and "Surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis".)
Issues related to management of native valve endocarditis and infection associated with cardiac devices are discussed separately. (See "Antimicrobial therapy of native valve endocarditis" and "Surgery for left-sided native valve endocarditis" and "Infections involving cardiac implantable electronic devices".)
Management of prosthetic heart valve infection can be difficult; optimal treatment requires:
●Identification of the causative microorganism
●Selection of an effective bactericidal antimicrobial regimen
- Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, et al. Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association. Circulation 2015; 132:1435.
- Habib G, Lancellotti P, Antunes MJ, et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis: The Task Force for the Management of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Endorsed by: European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS), the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Eur Heart J 2015; 36:3075.
- Karchmer AW. Infections of Prosthetic Heart Valves. In: Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices, 3rd ed, Waldvogel FA, Bisno AL (Eds), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC 2000. p.145.
- Wilson WR, Karchmer AW, Dajani AS, et al. Antibiotic treatment of adults with infective endocarditis due to streptococci, enterococci, staphylococci, and HACEK microorganisms. American Heart Association. JAMA 1995; 274:1706.
- Lalani T, Chu VH, Park LP, et al. In-hospital and 1-year mortality in patients undergoing early surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis. JAMA Intern Med 2013; 173:1495.
- Chirouze C, Alla F, Fowler VG Jr, et al. Impact of early valve surgery on outcome of Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60:741.
- Karchmer AW, Bayer AS. Editorial commentary: surgical therapy for Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve endocarditis: proceed with caution (Caveat Emptor). Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60:750.
- Drinković D, Morris AJ, Pottumarthy S, et al. Bacteriological outcome of combination versus single-agent treatment for staphylococcal endocarditis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003; 52:820.
- Karchmer AW, Archer GL, Dismukes WE. Rifampin treatment of prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5 Suppl 3:S543.
- Archer GL, Johnston JL, Vazquez GJ, Haywood HB 3rd. Efficacy of antibiotic combinations including rifampin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis: in vitro and in vivo studies. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5 Suppl 3:S538.
- Kobasa WD, Kaye KL, Shapiro T, Kaye D. Therapy for experimental endocarditis due to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5 Suppl 3:S533.
- Chuard C, Herrmann M, Vaudaux P, et al. Successful therapy of experimental chronic foreign-body infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by antimicrobial combinations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991; 35:2611.
- Lucet JC, Herrmann M, Rohner P, et al. Treatment of experimental foreign body infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990; 34:2312.
- Rouse MS, Wilcox RM, Henry NK, et al. Ciprofloxacin therapy of experimental endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990; 34:273.
- Souli M, Pontikis K, Chryssouli Z, et al. Successful treatment of right-sided prosthetic valve endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant teicoplanin-heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus with linezolid. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2005; 24:760.
- Cubicin resistance should be closely monitored in bacteremia patients. The Pink Sheet 2006; 68:11.
- Mohan SS, McDermott BP, Cunha BA. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis with paravalvular abscess treated with daptomycin. Heart Lung 2005; 34:69.
- Howden BP, Ward PB, Charles PG, et al. Treatment outcomes for serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38:521.
- Moore CL, Osaki-Kiyan P, Haque NZ, et al. Daptomycin versus vancomycin for bloodstream infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration: a case-control study. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54:51.
- Dhand A, Sakoulas G. Daptomycin in combination with other antibiotics for the treatment of complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Clin Ther 2014; 36:1303.
- Sakoulas G, Moise PA, Casapao AM, et al. Antimicrobial salvage therapy for persistent staphylococcal bacteremia using daptomycin plus ceftaroline. Clin Ther 2014; 36:1317.
- Karchmer AW, Archer GL, Dismukes WE. Staphylococcus epidermidis causing prosthetic valve endocarditis: microbiologic and clinical observations as guides to therapy. Ann Intern Med 1983; 98:447.
- Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Susceptibility Testing. Twenty-second informational supplement CLSI document M100-S22, vol 32. Wayne, PA 2012.
- Gould FK, Denning DW, Elliott TS, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of endocarditis in adults: a report of the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012; 67:269.
- Matsumoto JY, Wilson WR, Wright AJ, et al. Synergy of penicillin and decreasing concentration of aminoglycosides against enterococci from patients with infective endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1980; 18:944.
- Bayer AS, Bolger AF, Taubert KA, et al. Diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis and its complications. Circulation 1998; 98:2936.
- Farber BF, Eliopoulos GM, Ward JI, et al. Resistance to penicillin-streptomycin synergy among clinical isolates of viridans streptococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1983; 24:871.
- Enzler MJ, Rouse MS, Henry NK, et al. In vitro and in vivo studies of streptomycin-resistant, penicillin-susceptible streptococci from patients with infective endocarditis. J Infect Dis 1987; 155:954.
- Rice LB, Calderwood SB, Eliopoulos GM, et al. Enterococcal endocarditis: a comparison of prosthetic and native valve disease. Rev Infect Dis 1991; 13:1.
- Eliopoulos GM. Enterococcal endocarditis. In: Infective Endocarditis, Kaye D (Ed), Raven Press, New York 1992. p.209.
- Eliopoulos GM. Aminoglycoside resistant enterococcal endocarditis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1993; 7:117.
- GERACI JE, MARTIN WJ. Antibiotic therapy of bacterial endocarditis. VI. Subacute enterococcal endocarditis; clinical, pathologic and therapeutic consideration of 33 cases. Circulation 1954; 10:173.
- Gavaldà J, Len O, Miró JM, et al. Brief communication: treatment of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis with ampicillin plus ceftriaxone. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146:574.
- Fernández-Hidalgo N, Almirante B, Gavaldà J, et al. Ampicillin plus ceftriaxone is as effective as ampicillin plus gentamicin for treating enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56:1261.
- Pericas JM, Cervera C, del Rio A, et al. Changes in the treatment of Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis in Spain in the last 15 years: from ampicillin plus gentamicin to ampicillin plus ceftriaxone. Clin Microbiol Infect 2014; 20:O1075.
- Olaison L, Schadewitz K, Swedish Society of Infectious Diseases Quality Assurance Study Group for Endocarditis. Enterococcal endocarditis in Sweden, 1995-1999: can shorter therapy with aminoglycosides be used? Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34:159.
- Dahl A, Rasmussen RV, Bundgaard H, et al. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis: a pilot study of the relationship between duration of gentamicin treatment and outcome. Circulation 2013; 127:1810.
- Rao N, White GJ. Successful treatment of Enterococcus faecalis prosthetic valve endocarditis with linezolid. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35:902.
- Levine DP, Lamp KC. Daptomycin in the treatment of patients with infective endocarditis: experience from a registry. Am J Med 2007; 120:S28.
- Meyer DJ, Gerding DN. Favorable prognosis of patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by gram-negative bacilli of the HACEK group. Am J Med 1988; 85:104.
- Murray BE, Karchmer AW, Moellering RC Jr. Diphtheroid prosthetic valve endocarditis. A study of clinical features and infecting organisms. Am J Med 1980; 69:838.
- Walsh TJ, Anaissie EJ, Denning DW, et al. Treatment of aspergillosis: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46:327.
- Brouqui P, Raoult D. Endocarditis due to rare and fastidious bacteria. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001; 14:177.