Medline ® Abstracts for References 84,85
of 'Antihypertensive therapy and progression of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease in adults'
Long-term beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in patients with nephrotic proteinuria.
Praga M, Hernández E, Montoyo C, Andrés A, Ruilope LM, Rodicio JL
Am J Kidney Dis. 1992;20(3):240.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) can reduce proteinuria in diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathy. However, no studies have determined whether this antiproteinuric effect modifies the progression of renal insufficiency. We studied the evolution of 46 nondiabetic patients with nephrotic proteinuria treated with captopril for a minimum of 12 months. The follow-up period before captopril treatment was 12 to 18 months. At the end of follow-up, after captopril introduction (24.4 +/- 7.6 months), proteinuria had decreased from 6.3 +/- 2.5 to 3.9 +/- 3.1 g/24 h (P less than 0.001), with a mean decrease of 45% +/- 28%. The proteinuria decrease was higher in patients with reflux nephropathy, proteinuria associated with reduction of renal mass, inactive crescentic glomerulonephritis, nephroangiosclerosis, and IgA nephropathy, whereas patients with membranous glomerulonephritis and idiopathic focal glomerulosclerosis showed a poorer response. Patients were separated according to a proteinuria reduction greater (group A, 23 patients) or lower (group B, 23 patients) than 45% of the initial value. At the end of follow-up, renal function had not significantly changed in group A with respect to values at the start of treatment: serum creatinine (SCr) was 229 +/- 167 mumol/L (2.6 +/- 1.9 mg/dL) versus 203 +/- 97 mumol/L (2.3 +/- 1.1 mg/dL), and creatinine clearance (CrCl) was 0.80 +/- 0.52 mL/s (48 +/- 31 mL/min) versus 0.87 +/- 0.47 mL/s (52 +/- 28 mL/min). The slope of the reciprocal of Scr (1/SCr) showed a significantly beneficial change after captopril introduction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Department of Nephrology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
Effect of calcium channel or beta-blockade on the progression of diabetic nephropathy in African Americans.
Bakris GL, Mangrum A, Copley JB, Vicknair N, Sadler R
beta-Blockers are known to slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy by lowering arterial pressure. Moreover, in individuals with diabetic nephropathy, antihypertensive agents that provide sustained reductions in proteinuria slow the rate of decline in renal function compared with agents without this antiproteinuric effect. To examine whether differential effects on proteinuria affect the progression of diabetic nephropathy, we conducted a randomized study that compared the effects of a heart rate-lowering calcium channel blocker, sustained-release verapamil, with those of a beta-blocker, atenolol, on the progression of diabetic renal disease. The primary end point of the study was a change in creatinine clearance slope. Thirty-four African Americans with the following inclusion criteria were randomized to one of the two groups: serum creatinine greater than 1.4 mg/dL, proteinuria greater than 1500 mg/d, longer than a 5-year history of both non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and exclusion of other renal diseases. Goal blood pressure was less than 140/90 mm Hg. All subjects received loop diuretics as second line agents to help achieve the blood pressure goal. Twenty-four-hour urinary protein and sodium excretions as well as creatinine clearance were measured at 6-month intervals. Blood pressure was measured every 3 months. After a mean follow-up of 54+/-6 months, the calcium channel blocker group demonstrated both a slower rate of decline in creatinine clearance (-1.7+/-0.9 versus -3.7+/-1.4 mL/min per year per 1.73 m2, P<.01) and a greater reduction in proteinuria compared with the atenolol group. Additionally, a greater proportion of the atenolol group had a 50% or more increase in serum creatinine compared with the verapamil group (32+/-9% versus 16+/-7%, P<.05). These between-group differences could not be explained by differences in blood pressure control. These data support the concept that antihypertensive agents that persistently maintain reductions in both arterial pressure and proteinuria slow the progression of diabetic renal disease in African Americans to a greater extent than those agents without these effects.
Department of Medicine, Ochsner Clinic, New Orleans, La, USA. email@example.com